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    Missing and Moved Mozarts and Friends 
 
 
          Missing, Moved, Recycled, Unknown/Lost Mozarts and Friends
          ----------------------------------------------------------
                        by David Morton
 
                          June, 2004 
 
                    Last revised: September, 2017    
  
  
             A Quick-Reference Guide To:
 
             Missing Bodies, Moved Bodies, Lost Bodies,  
             Recycled Bodies in Graveyards,   
             Unknown Burial Locations, Tombs, Coffins,  
             Funeral Information, Memorial Services, 
             General Mozart Facts, 
             and Related Information. 
 
             * Additionally:    
             Missing NAMES on Imitation Headstones.
             (The "Mozart Family Grave" Memorial - Salzburg). 
 
             * Additionally:    
             Missing ADULTS (Early Deaths).  
             Mozart's Deceased "Siblings" from Salzburg. 
             Mozart's Deceased Children from Vienna. 
 
             * Additionally:    
             Missing CLARITY for some items.   
             Missing HONESTY for some items.   
 
             * Additionally:    
             IRONIES with some items.
 
 
 
 
 

             BONUS TOPIC Near the End of this Article: 
             Kangaroos!! 
             Accuracy/Inaccuracy, Frauds, Liars, Imposters,  
             Wrecking Balls, West Haters, Mozart Haters, 
             Communists, and KANGAROOS from Australia. 
             Sorry, but it needs to be said SOMEWHERE, so
             that people aren't misled by Imposters. 
             I chose this Page at random to say it. 
             Maybe I'll make it a separate Topic in the Future,
             and call it "Kangaroos". 
             Humor??  No. It's mostly serious.   
 
 
 
 
                     Synopsis
                     --------     
    The number of Missing, Moved, and Unknown Burial 
    locations of people connected with Mozart is peculiar. 
    Even Bizarre. 
    And the Extent of other "MISSING" Items ranges beyond 
    "Missing Bodies", making the situation even Stranger.      
 
     For some Burials, we may know the CITY, and even the CEMETERY, 
     but we sometimes don't know WHERE the person is buried. 
 
     *  From the Main Reference List, Below 
        (Wolfgang, Relatives, and Friends):   
 
     ON THE MAIN LIST OF 11 PEOPLE CONNECTED TO MOZART: 
         6 of the 11:   MOVED. 
         7 of the 11:   LOST/UNKNOWN. 
         All of the 11: MOVED OR LOST/UNKNOWN. 
 
     *  The "Mozart Family Grave" in Salzburg. 
        (It's a Fake/Artificial Memorial Site): 
        5 "MISSING" BODIES.       
        SEVERAL MISSING NAMES.    
        This is a Fake/Artificial/Imitation/Memorial Site. 
        No Mystery as to the Missing Bodies. 
        But curiously, there ARE some Bodies buried there!!   
        (Listed because there shouldn't be ANY Bodies underneath the
        Fake Headstones, but there ARE some Bodies buried underneath 
        the Fake Headstones!! 
        Bodies probably buried Hundreds of Years ago, and forgotten.)    
 
    "The Mozart Family Grave" in Salzburg is an Artificial Creation, 
    casting further confusion on the subject. 
    For the Average Tourist:     It spreads CONFUSION.  
    For the Average Mozart Fan:  It spreads CONFUSION.  
    For the Advanced Mozart Fan: It spreads CONFUSION.  
    It IS a Fake, but with no intent to deceive, created simply to 
    Honor the Mozart family (or so it was claimed). 
 
    Strangely enough, it does a ***POOR*** job of Honoring the Mozart
    Family, with most of the Family names MISSING!!   
    Even Wolfgang Mozart's name is MISSING from the Headstones!! 
    How can you honor the Mozart Family, but skip Wolfgang?? 
 
    It's a Tourist Attraction, today.  
    Some Tourists and others don't realize that it's an Artificial Site. 
    Those people listed on the Headstones aren't really buried there. 
    Bodies and CLARITY are Missing, while the Bodies of Strangers are
    mysteriously PRESENT underneath the Fake Headstones!! 
    MISSING Mozart NAMES and Unknown STRANGER BODIES!! 
    Very Weird!!   
 
    Additionally, there are a number of IRONIES surrounding Mozart's 
    death, and those of some other friends, relatives, and people
    connected with Mozart in some way. 
    This document is a quick-reference guide to the basic facts. 
 
    (One of the items sometimes missing from today's literature and
    movies is Truthful Information. 
    It's not just Bodies that are Missing: Honesty is sometimes MISSING.
    Be On The Lookout For Mozart's Grave and MR. HONESTY ABOUT MOZART!!  
    HONESTY has now been Missing for DECADES!! 
    Last seen in Vienna in 1791. 
    If you see MR. HONESTY, contact Someone!!
    Note: Michael Lorenz is HONEST - and THOROUGH and SMART!! 
    So are some OTHERS!!  
    He's not missing. He's Excellent!! But he's Rare.
    There are also a few others!!  They're Excellent!! 
    But they're RARE!!       
    "Agnes WHO???")  
 
    Note: Mozart was almost certainly buried in a COFFIN - not in 
    a sack, as often depicted in books and movies. 
    Source:  Dr. Michael Lorenz of Vienna. 
    More information further down.        
 
    
    .................................................................. 
    Accuracy Note: 
    I was misled years ago by being given untrustworthy information. 
    Hopefully, everything has NOW BEEN CORRECTED. 
    If you find any remaining mistakes, please contact me, and I will 
    correct them. Thank you.  
    .................................................................. 
 
 
 
    A RELIABLE source of information is Dr. Michael Lorenz of Vienna.  
    He always verifies his information, often visiting the location
    and checking the original documents whenever possible. 
    If he says it's true, it is definitely TRUE. 
 
    There are also some others who are reliable. 
    But all of them need to PROVE that their information is correct, 
    if it's challenged. 
    That's Fair and Normal in all the Sciences. 
 
    In some cases, we can take their word for it, based on their 
    Reputation.  
    But to be "Hard Facts", claims need to be proven. 
    Otherwise, they're Assertions - Claims. 
 
    With a Good Reputation for Thoroughness, Honesty, Knowledge, 
    Logic, Ability, Talent, Familiarity, and Common Sense, and no hint
    of Superficiality or Jumping to Conclusions without the requisite
    listed Tools, a Claim can nearly equal a Hard Fact. 
    But the number of people who can do that are Few and Far Between. 
 
    Note: I am not a Mozart "Expert". I'm a Mozart Fan, and have been 
    one since the early 1960's. 
 
    Additionally, I have discovered that there is a Genuine CONSPIRACY
    to minimize and degrade "Mozart the Man" in the minds of Mozart 
    Fans and Average People, in order to attack Western Civilization. 
 
    Mozart is one of the Few ICONS of Western Civilization, and by 
    attacking Mozart, these Perverted Demons hope to knock out ONE 
    of the Pillars of Western Civilization, causing people to lose
    faith in their beliefs, to become Depressed, to feel Stupid and 
    Uneducated, to feel Misled by Con Men who glorified Mozart, to
    feel Weak and Lazy, to be Confused, to be more Vulnerable to 
    FALSE PROPAGANDA, to be unwilling to stand up for their Country, 
    to be unwilling to fight for their Country or their Way of Life,
    to feel Betrayed by their Leaders and Heroes, etc, etc. 
    The movie "Amadeus" was the first Major Attack on Mozart - an  
    Icon of Western Civilization. 
 
    Various Perverted Swamp Creatures on Message Boards have continued
    the attack in many and various ways - such as focusing exclusively
    on Mozart's Wife on Mozart Message Boards, instead of Mozart and
    his Music, his Friends, his Wife, his Relatives, his Travels, 
    the Orchestras, the Instruments, his Successes, etc. 
 
    The word "Conspiracy" sounds like a Poisonous or Communist word. 
    But it's a Legitimate and Accurate word to use in this case. 
    The Conspiracy is against Western Civilization, and Mozart is a 
    convenient and recognizable Symbol or ICON to use for it. 
    In the Music World, Mozart's Star shines the brightest, and that's
    another reason he was chosen for attack by the Perverts.    
 
    The people who do this, think in CENTURIES, and work in DECADES - 
    very SLOWLY. Not Weeks, Months, or Years. 
 
    But I don't think the "Missing and Moved Bodies" have anything to do 
    with this vast Conspiracy to bring down or weaken Western Civilization. 
    The "Missing and Moved Bodies" is just a Strange and Bizarre situation, 
    and I don't know why it happened. 
 
    Mozart was a GREAT MAN!! 
    A great Composer, a great Performer, and a GOOD and DECENT MAN!!
    And VERY MATURE. 
    Sometimes silly in his Childhood (Oh, Horrors!!), and sometimes 
    silly in his Teenage Years (Oh, Horrors!!), but very WISE and 
    MATURE in his Adult Years.
 
    Enjoy this Detective Story of the Missing and Moved Mozarts and
    Friends, plus a few peculiar Miscellaneous Oddities.
    Strange Stuff with no Explanation, so far.      
       
   =============================================================================
 
            ---- Missing, Moved, and Lost Mozarts and Friends ---- 
                    ---- Burial Status Summary ----
   
          Name              Current Burial Status and Location
   ---------------------    ---------------------------------------------------  
   1.  Wolfgang Mozart      Unknown/Recycled    Vienna area (St. Marx Cem somewhere) 
   2.  Anna Pertl Mozart    Unknown/Recycled    Paris  (Wolfgang's mother) 
   3.  Franz Xaver Mozart   Moved               Karlsbad?? (Wolfgang's son)
   4.  Franz d'Yppold       Moved/Unknown       Salzburg   (sister's friend) 
   5.  Lorenzo DaPonte      Moved/Unknown       Manhattan then Queens, NY (operas)
   6.  Josepha Weber        Unknown                       (Constance's sister) 
   7.  Sophie  Weber        Moved               Salzburg  (Constance's sister)
   8.  Aloysia Weber        Moved               Salzburg  (Constance's sister) 
   9.  Anna Walsegg         Moved               Stuppach then Schottwein (Requiem) 
   10. Franz Sussmayr       Unknown/Recycled    Vienna area/St.Marx Cem  (Requiem)
   11. Giacomo Casanova     Unknown             Duchcov, Czech  (da Ponte friend) 
   =============================================================================
 
   Some Bodies have been MOVED to a KNOWN Location. 
   Some Bodies have been MOVED to an UNKNOWN Location and are LOST. 
   Some Bodies were in UNKNOWN Locations in a Known Cemetery, then RECYCLED. 
   Mozart's EXACT Location was always UNKNOWN, and his Body may have been RECYCLED.
   Recycling an Area every 7-10 Years for 3rd Class Funerals/Burials was normal, 
   but Coffins may have caused problems with the "Recycling" process. 
   Mozart was buried in an Individual Grave, and almost certainly buried in a Coffin .   
 
   Note for "Number 3" - Mozart's Son (1 of 2 Sons):  
   Some people claim that "Franz Xaver Mozart" was not the "Real" name of one of
   Mozart's Sons.   
   He received that name when Baptized, but was known as "Wolfgang" or "Wowi" 
   (nickname) by his parents, Wolfgang and Constance. 
   Therefore, the name of usage was "Wolfgang" or "Wowi" (or perhaps "Wolfgang Jr."??). 
   The "Official" Baptismal name was "Franz Xaver" Mozart. 
   Baptismal Names were considered to be "Official" during that era, having more 
   Standing than most other sources, presumably since the name was given by the Parents,
   and recorded by a Priest in the Church's record of Baptisms.  
 
   My opinion: Use One or Both names since both names are valid.  
   One name comes from USAGE by the Parents and the other from a BAPTISM by the Parents 
   (at a Church by a Priest). 
   It doesn't make sense to say that "Franz Xaver" wasn't his "Real" name, when it was
   the Parents who GAVE him that name - even if they didn't use it.
   If they didn't want to use that name, why did they give it to him??    
   If it's not his "Real" name, why did they give it to him in BAPTISM??    
 
   "Franz Xaver Mozart" (son) is his REAL NAME from his BAPTISM. 
   It's an "OFFICIAL" name, and it came from the Parents.  
 
                             .................................
 
 
   The Cemetery where Mozart was buried is located in the City of St. Marx. 
   St. Marx is a SUBURB of Vienna. 
   "Unknown" means essentially the same as "Lost" on this Page. 
   For Mozart, we know the Cemetery where he was buried, but the Location in the
   Cemetery is Unknown, and the area was ALSO probably "Recycled" many years ago. 
   His Body is Lost (Location Unknown), and also probably doesn't exist as a complete
   Body anymore due to multiple Recycling activities, done every 7-10 years, unless
   the wooden Coffin somehow remained intact. 
 
   Thus, Mozart's Burial Status and Location are listed here as "Unknown/Recycled".
   The City and Cemetery are KNOWN, but the Location in the Cemetery is UNKNOWN, 
   and the Body has probably been RECYCLED. 
   The Recycling is not certain since Mozart was almost certainly buried in a Coffin,
   but the Coffin may have disintegrated over time. 
 

   Thus, Mozart's Burial Status:

        UNKNOWN/RECYCLED  (Probably Recycled, but probably buried in a Coffin). 

                          (Almost certainly buried in a Coffin).

                          (If the Coffin was not Destroyed and "Recycled", and the

                           Coffin has not disintegrated over time, Mozart's Body 

                           might still be Intact inside the Coffin.

                           The Burial Status is actually: UNKNOWN/UNKNOWN.)    

 

 
                ---- Early Deaths ----
 
  Wolfgang's "Siblings": 
  * Pseudo Brother: Johann Leopold Joachim  (1748-1749).               Early Death. 
  * Pseudo Sister:  Maria Anna Cordula      (1749-1749).               Early Death. 
  * Pseudo Sister:  Maria Anna Nepomucena Walpurgis  (1750-1750).      Early Death. 
  * Pseudo Brother: Johann Karl Amadeus  (1752-1753).                  Early Death.   
  * Pseudo Sister:  Maria Crescentia Francisca de Paula (1754-1754).   Early Death.  
 
  Wolfgang's Children: 
  * Son:       Raimund Leopold  (27 Jun 1783 - 19 Aug 1783).           Early Death.
  * Son:       Johann Thomas Leopold (18 Oct 1786 - 15 Nov 1786).      Early Death.  
  * Daughter:  Theresia C.A.F. Maria Anna (27 Dec 1787 - 29 Jun 1788). Early Death.
  * Daughter:  Anna Maria  (16 Nov 1789 - 16 Nov 1789).                Early Death.  
               (2 Sons lived normal lives).
 
 
  ---- Some Additional Items: Early Deaths, Destruction, Etc ----
 
  * Michael Haydn's daughter died on Mozart's birthday (Age: 1 year). 
  * Mozart's Death Mask was "accidentally" smashed by Constance. 
  * Anna Walsegg's tomb (Requiem) was destroyed by Napoleon's troops. 
  * The only known portrait of Franz Sussmayr is lost.   
  * The Tanzmeister house in Salzburg (Mozart house) was 2/3 destroyed
    during WW2. (Later, rebuilt.)     
  * Lichnowsky's papers were consumed in a fire of his house in Prague. 
  * Joseph Eybler suffered a non-fatal stroke while conducting the
    Requiem in 1833. The stroke ended his career.  
  * Peter S (author) assassinated Mozart's character in the movie "Amadeus". 
    Peter S is guilty of Character Assassination, and is a Retarded, Traitorous,
    Fool who should find a Kangaroo for a playmate.   
 
 
  The "Pseudo Brothers and Sisters" are children of Wolfgang's mother,
  who were born and died BEFORE Wolfgang was born, and died young.  
  Wolfgang Mozart was born on 27 January 1756. 
  Mozart's mother had 7 children. 2 of the children survived - Wolfgang
  and a sister.  
  Six children preceded him, but 5 of them died before Wolfgang was born. 
 
  Mozart's mother almost died giving birth to Wolfgang due to a failure of
  the placenta to detach. 
  Her exact burial location is "Unknown/Recycled (Paris)", as noted above. 
 
  "Sons and Daughters" are the children of Mozart and Constance, who 
  died young. 
 
  MOZART'S DAUGHTER - 1789: 
  From Research by Michael Lorenz. 
  The Wolfgang/Constance daughter "Anna Maria" (16 Nov 1789) was originally 
  listed as a boy named "Kristian" by the authorities, but that was simply 
  a provisional name before the parents had named the baby, and is similar 
  to "John Doe" or "Jane Doe" in today's parlance, and had the WRONG GENDER
  listed by the Officials (a boy instead of a girl). 
     Kristian = "John Doe". 
     Kristina = "Jane Doe". 
     Anna Maria = Her Real Name, per Church Records. 
                  A Girl, not a Boy. 
                  Lived for 1 Hour.    
  The daughter's real name, given by the parents, was "Anna Maria", according
  to church records. 
  She lived for only 1 hour, and died of spasms.  
  She was baptized In Emergency by the midwife, but someone incorrectly
  recorded the gender as a Boy ("Kristian"), and didn't correct it later.  
  She was later named by the parents, a funeral might have been held, and she
  was buried, with the name recorded in church records. 
  Her REAL and Official name was the name given by the parents, not the 
  initial, provisional, temporary "John Doe / Jane Doe" name. 
  It was a girl, and she was named "Anna Maria" by the parents.
  She was buried on 17 November 1789 (the next day), according to church
  records.  
  Researched and clarified by Michael Lorenz.    
 
  Additionally, Peter S. attempted the character assassination of
  Wolfgang Mozart in the movie "Amadeus" with his "MYTH MONGERING", 
  portraying Mozart as a Sublime Artist and a Fool.   
  "Character Assassination" may not be death or murder, but it's close. 
 
 
  ---- Claimed Members of the FAKE "Mozart Family Grave" in Salzburg ----
          ---- St. Sebastian's Cemetery, Salzburg, Austria ---- 
 
     It's Just a Tourist Attraction With No Bodies - Not a Real Grave  
                  (It's an Artificial Grave Site)  
           (The people below are "MISSING" and were Never Present) 
 
 
   1.  Constance (Weber) Mozart    
   2.  Leopold Mozart    
   3.  Euphrosina Pertl    
   4.  Genovefa Weber    
   5.  Jeanette Berchthold von Sonnenburg  
 
                        
 
  But there ARE Bodies located there, under the Tombstones. 
  Details and a larger photograph are located further down on this page. 
  See "The Mozart Family Grave" 2/3 down for a full-sized Photo. 
 
  Search: "family grave"  or  "saint sebastian" (2 words, full spelling). 
  No Quotes.  
 

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
  
      Mozart's Birth, Illness, Death, Funeral, Etc. 
 
      Born: January 27, 1756. 
            Salzburg, Austria.
      Died: December 5, 1791.  
            Early Monday morning (late Sunday night). 
            Vienna, Austria. 
      Death Known to his Wife, Etc:  
            At the time of his Death.     
            Early Monday morning (late Sunday night). December 5, 1791. 
      Procession to the Church:  
            Tuesday morning, December 6th. 
      Funeral:    
            Tuesday, December 6th. 
      Procession to the Graveyard with Friends:  
            None. 
      Hearse to the Graveyard: 
                  See Burial.  
                  The trip to the Graveyard and the Burial should be 
                  the same dates.   
      Burial:     Unknown. Dec 6th Tuesday, or Dec 7th Wednesday.
                  After the Tuesday Funeral, or the next day. 
                  After 6 PM (night).        
 
      Early December 1791: 
      Mozart died early Monday morning, December 5th, 1791, at 12:55 AM. 
      In "practical" terms, he died late Sunday Night, December 4th, but
      technically about an hour after Midnight on Monday, December 5th. 
      He was honored with a procession from his home to the church on Tuesday 
      (with the Body), with a funeral held on Tuesday, and increasingly 
      honored in the days, weeks, months, and years that followed. 
      Funeral Church:  St. Stephen's Cathedral, 1 block away from his home. 
 
                   ......................
 
 
      Sickness, Death, Procession, Funeral, Burial.
      Short Timeline:  
 
      * Dec 4th. Sunday afternoon. Doing all right.   
                        Singing with friends.               
      * Dec 4th. Sunday night. Weak and sick.   
      * Dec 4th. Sunday night late. Doctor summoned. Around 11:00 PM?? (est). 
                 The Doctor arrived after an Opera ended that he was 
                 attending.   
      * Dec 4th. Sunday night, late. 
                 Probable blood-letting. 
                 Probable emetics administered.     
      * Dec 5th. Monday morning Dec 5th, 12:55 AM: Died. 
                 (Essentially, late Sunday Night.) 
      * Dec 5th. Monday.   Body remained at his house.  
      * Dec 6th. Tuesday.  Casket procession from the house to the church. 
                           Church: St. Stephen's Cathedral.
                           Distance from house to church: 1 block.    
                           Funeral at St. Stephen's Church. 
      * Dec 6/7. Tues/Wed.  Possible:  Transported to Cemetery and Buried. 
      * Dec 7.   Wednesday. Probable:  Transported to Cemetery and Buried. 
      * Dec xx.  Tues/Wed. Transported to St. Marx Cemetery in 
           suburban Vienna and buried.  Date uncertain.  
           If the "48-Hour Rule" was followed: Transported and buried
           on Wednesday. (Monday to Wednesday: 48 hours.)       
           Funeral and Burial Class: 3rd Class (Middle Class).     
           Buried in a Typical, Individual Middle Class Grave
           below ground. Small marker permitted on the Grave.  
           Probably buried in a Coffin (almost certainly). 
           Probably transported to the graveyard and buried
           after 6:00 PM (Winter Rules) on December 6th or 7th.   
           Probably transported and buried on Wednesday December 7th 
           (48-Hour Rule) at Night (Winter Rules - after 6:00 PM).  
 
           Wednesday, December 7th is a more likely date for the transport
           and burial of Mozart (due to the "48-Hour Rule"), and burial
           at Night (after 6:00 PM) probably occurred due to the Winter
           Rules of burial and transportation to occur after 6:00 PM
           in the Winter.  
 
           It's said that the churches in the area DID FOLLOW the Winter Rules 
           (burial after 6:00 PM), but the "48-Hour Rule" had fallen into 
           some disregard.
 
           The "48-Hour Rule" was intended to prevent Live Burials by keeping
           the body in a Holding Area for 48 hours to ensure that the person
           was really dead. 
           Holy Mother of God!! A person can be "brain dead" for hours and 
           still be revived. It's happened. 
           Apparently, Mozart was really dead when buried on Tuesday or 
           Wednesday since he died "Late Sunday Night" (early Monday morning). 
 
 
           TIMING FROM DEATH TO BURIAL
           (BURIED ON TUESDAY OR WEDNESDAY): 
           From "Late Sunday Night" to "Tuesday Night" is about 2 Days.
           From "Late Sunday Night" to "Wednesday Night" is about 3 Days. 
           Therefore, Mozart was Dead for 2 or 3 Days before he was Buried. 
 
           With all the BLOOD LETTING, plus possible COMPLICATIONS caused by
           the Blood Letting, plus EMETICS, plus DISEASE, plus ELAPSED TIME, 
           plus a POSSIBLE desire to Give Up and End it All (Speculation) after 
           the Blood Letting and Emetics and Vomiting, he was Dead - not 
           "Nearly Dead" or "Brain Dead" and able to be revived. 
 
           Although he was Happy and Cheerful Sunday Afternoon, I think his
           mood (and Energy) would have changed considerably after the visit
           by the Quack "Doctor", and it's probably not far fetched to 
           speculate that Mozart might have decided to "Give Up" at that
           point, adding one more factor to his Cause of Death.   
 
           If his Wife hadn't called the Vampire Doctor, Mozart might have
           lived - and probably would have Lived!!  
 
           Was Constance trying to kill him or make him suffer?? 
           I don't think she had read any incriminating Letters, yet, so
           that notion doesn't make sense. 
           She was probably just doing what she thought she was supposed
           to do (she probably didn't know that the Doctors were Quacks),
           and called "The Doctor". 
           If she hadn't done so when Mozart's Health declined Sunday
           Night, she might have been accused of "Killing Mozart". 
           She was in a "No Win" situation due to the state of Medical
           Expertise in that Era. 
 
         * DON'T call the Doctor:  Mozart might have died. C is blamed. 
 
         * DO call the Doctor:     Mozart would probably Die. C is blamed. 
                                   But Constance didn't realize it. 
                                   Most people probably didn't realize it. 
                                   Blood Letting + Emetics can kill, but 
                                       some survive.  
                                   Leopold strongly believed in Blood Letting.  
                                   Wolfgang was OPPOSED to Blood Letting.  
 
 
 
 
                   ---- Funeral/Burial/Grave ----                          
 
      According to Walter Brauneis of Vienna, Mozart was buried 
      in a TYPICAL, USUAL, ORDINARY, INDIVIDUAL DIRT GRAVE (as opposed 
      to a "Monument" grave, above ground), as the only occupant, 
      apparently in a COFFIN (per Michael Lorenz), and not in a sack, 
      not naked, and not in a Mass Grave. 
      (What was typical, usual, ordinary, common, simple/plain?? 
      Other sources have now clarified and expanded the information 
      considerably, enabling us to understand what was meant.
      Brauneis assumes that we all know what was typical, usual, and
      ordinary for that era. 
      But that's not Common Knowledge, today. 
      We need to know both: The general information and the details.) 
    
 
      The funeral was a typical "Middle Class Funeral". 
      The grave was a typical "Middle Class Grave". 
 
      
      Mozart's funeral and burial were "3rd Class" - the typical 
      class. 
      "3rd Class" was "Middle Class" - the typical and popular class,
      with 99 Percent of Viennese receiving a 3rd Class funeral and
      burial. 
 
      Mozart was almost certainly buried in a COFFIN. 
      Even 4th Class burials (Paupers) were done with a coffin. 
      "3rd Class" was not insulting or intended for Paupers.   
      Paupers had their own Class (4th Class). 
 
      The body was probably transported and buried at night 
      (date uncertain) per the Winter Rules issued in 1790 
      by the Vienna City Council or the Austrian government. 
 
      Official Imperial Edict of July 1790:
      Burials in Winter must be done After 6:00 PM.
      Mozart's burial: Probably done after 6:00 PM  
      if "Early December" was considered "Winter".
      (Why didn't they just specify a Date??)   
 
      The trip to the graveyard might have occurred during
      the daytime, but it seems doubtful. Early December - 
      December 6/7/8/9 - probably ranks as "Winter" for
      most people in the Northern Hemisphere, requiring
      the trip to take place after 6:00 PM, per royal 
      decree.  
 
      No friends were present, but it was NOT THE CUSTOM 
      to follow the body to the gravesite during that
      era. And if the trip to the graveyard took place
      at night (which it almost certainly did), it would 
      have been a dark, lengthy, somewhat risky and pointless 
      trip to make, to a suburb of Vienna. 
 
      Distance to the Cemetery: About 4.5 Miles. 
      Round-trip Distance to the Cemetery: About 9 Miles. 
      Time of Day: Probably NIGHT (after 6 PM).  
 
      Some of them had already participated in a procession, 
      travelling with the hearse from the house to the Church, 
      on city streets. 
 
      After the funeral, the Church rituals were finished. 
      The actual burial was not considered part of the 
      funeral ritual. 
 
      Based on the burial practices of the time, that
      was a good, considerate, common-sense thing to do 
      for the sake of the friends and relatives (and
      children??) - to end the funeral rites at the 
      Church, and not at the grave site. 
 
      When the funeral at the church was finished, all 
      the funeral ceremonies were complete. 
 
      The burial was not witnessed by anyone but the 
      grave diggers, and possibly the hearse drivers.  
 
      Source for grave information: 
         Walther Brauneis of Vienna. 
 
 
 
    -------------------------------------------------------------
    -------------------------------------------------------------
 
  
               ---- Burials/Coffins/Edicts ----                          
 
      The edicts of Joseph II, on 23 Aug 1784, where the dead
      were to be buried in a cloth sack, dumped into a dirt 
      grave from a reusable coffin, then covered with lime and 
      dirt, were never fully APPROVED by the Vienna City Council, 
      and that provision (and a few others) were immediately 
      "overturned" by the Council and never implemented.  
 
      IE, we have to go one step BEYOND what Emperor Joseph II
      decreed, and examine what the Vienna City Council APPROVED,
      since their approval was required to make the decree effective. 
      And we need to examine what Proactive Policies they issued.   
 
      (We ALSO have to go one step beyond that and find out what the
      Churches did - what rules they followed, what rules they ignored,
      what the Large Churches did, what the Small Churches did, 
      what the "Country" Churches did, what Specific Churches did, 
      etc. 
      Orders from the Vatican might also be a Factor, overriding 
      Orders from the Emperor and the various City Councils - or
      attempting to do so.     
      Instead of being Clear Cut and Absolute, the situation with 
      the Rules is a Mess, and Evidence from the Churches, such as
      Charges to Families, Baptisms, etc, would be the Final Authority,
      if they can be located.)  
 
      The citizens of Vienna, and the City Council, strongly
      objected to the requirement of burying naked bodies in cloth
      sacks, dumped into a grave from a reusable coffin. 
      For one thing, it was too reminiscent of mass graves from the
      recent Plague of 1713/14. 
      Even relatively poor people were buried in coffins, before
      and after Joseph's (overturned) edict. 
 
      Joseph then issued a modified decree 5 months later, on 
      20 Jan 1785 which stated that coffin burials were permitted.
      He stated further that ANY kind of burial was permitted, but
      noted that coffin burials were preferred by the people. 
      Joseph was evidently trying to hold down the costs of Funerals - 
      costs which could add to their Financial problems when the
      main Breadwinner Died.  
 
      Therefore, although sack burials were permitted, Mozart was 
      almost certainly buried in a COFFIN - since that was overwhelmingly 
      the preferred choice of the people, according to the Emperor 
      and the Vienna City Council. 
 
      Joseph II may have been the Emperor, but he wasn't the
      Dictator. 
      The Vienna City Council had to approve the Emperor's decrees to 
      make them effective - to make them Legal.  
 
      It's not certain that Mozart was buried in a coffin, but it's
      ALMOST CERTAIN, since people found "sack burials" repulsive, and
      preferred coffins - even for poor people who (perhaps) couldn't 
      pay for them.   
 
      Source for coffin information: 
         Michael Lorenz of Vienna.  
 
 
    -------------------------------------------------------------
    -------------------------------------------------------------
 
 
 
 1. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 
    (Joannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart).
    Buried in St. Marx Cemetery, in the Vienna area. 
    St. Marx is a suburb of Vienna.  
    Location in cemetery unknown.
   
    Born January 27, 1756, at Getreidegasse 9 (at home), 
    in Salzburg, Austria, at 8:00pm.
    (His Mother almost died giving birth, due to complications of a
    placenta which didn't detach itself). 
 
    Died Monday, December 5, 1791, 12:55am (Sunday night/Monday morning), 
    in Vienna, Austria, at home, at "City 970 (Little Kaiserhaus) 
    on Rauhensteingasse" (now #8 Rauhensteingasse), at age 35, 
    after living for 13,096 days and 5 hours (314,309 hours).
    Present at his bedside: 
      * Dr. Closset. 
      * Sophie Weber Haibl (Wife's Sister). 
      * Constance Mozart.  
 
    Funeral held Tuesday, December 6, 1791.
    Buried in St. Marx Cemetery (St. Marxer Friedhof), Vienna area, 
    on Tuesday or Wednesday.
    Precise burial location in cemetery unknown.
 
    Summary of some relevant dates, from November-1791/January-1792,
    for Wolfgang Mozart: 
 
      1791
      Nov 14     - Officials remind Mozart that his possessions and half 
                   his salary have been attached to pay off a debt to 
                   Prince Lichnowsky, for a lawsuit filed by him - a fellow 
                   Freemason, former piano student, friend, and aristocrat.  
                   Possibly for a loan (not a gambling debt).  
 
      Sun Dec  4 - Final hours awake - Some of the Requiem may have
                   been sung with Mozart and friends, at home, 
                   in the afternoon, around 2:00 PM. 
                   According to Mozart's friend, Benedikt Schack, the
                   impromptu choir consisted of Benedikt Schack, Franz Hofer,
                   Franz Xaver Gerl, and Mozart.  
                   Mozart broke down, sobbing bitterly when they reached the
                   first measures of the Lacrimosa, and put the score aside.
                   (Mozart might have been too weak to do any singing,
                   but his strength varied during his final illness.
                   So the story MIGHT be true and probably is true. 
                   Additionally, one of the symptoms of Rheumatic Fever
                   is an exaggerated emotional state, as Mozart displayed.
                   How would Schack know that?? He must have seen it with his
                   own eyes, reporting it truthfully and factually.
                   This means that Schack was probably there, and they probably
                   sang part of the Requiem, as he stated.) 
                   Some people say that Mozart was too weak to do much
                   of anything. Not necessarily, in my opinion. 
                   It partially depended on the normal variation of his disease,
                   and when the last visit from the doctor occurred.    
                   The doctor arrived late Sunday night, evidently weakened him, 
                   sickened him, poisoned him, and killed him.    
                   Mozart died about 2 hours after the doctor (Dr. Closset) 
                   treated him (killed him). 
                   He did NOT die 2 hours after visiting with friends and 
                   singing part of the Requiem.
                   He died 2 hours after the visit from the doctor. 
                   Of course, we can make EXCUSES using speculation (The singing
                   must have weakened him).
                   But if we use ONLY facts, we know that Mozart lived for many
                   hours after being visited by friends, but died 2 hours after
                   being attended by Dr. Closset - a blood-letter and emetics
                   (vomiting) quack.    
                   Mozart might have died anyway, but the KNOWN FACTS point to
                   Dr. Closset and the "medical team" as the primary cause of
                   Mozart's death. 
                   Mozart might have LIVED if the Doctor hadn't been called.   
                
                   
      Mon Dec  5 - Died in his sleep (12:55am). Sunday night/Monday morning. 
 
      Mon Dec  5 - Funeral arrangements made.
 

      Tue Dec  6 - Body taken from house to church in a procession. 
                   This was a procession of mourners from Mozart's house
                   to St. Stephens Cathedral, just a block away, carrying 
                   his body in a coffin, for the funeral.  
                   So, Mozart *DID* receive a solemn procession of friends 
                   after he died. 
                   It was the procession accompanying the body from his house 
                   to the church rather than the trip to the graveyard, which 
                   was not the custom anyway, at that time. 
 
                   Probable participants in the procession to the church 
                   (testimony plus speculation): 
                       Cross bearer.
                       Pall bearers.
                       4 Altar boys carrying lanterns. 
                       Weber family.   
                       Johann Georg Albrechtsberger. 
                       Franz Jacob Freystadler. 
                       Otto Hatwig.
                       Antonio Salieri. 
                       Anselm Huttenbrenner.
                       Franz Xaver Sussmayr. 
 
                   That's about 18 people, minimum, per testimony and speculation. 
                   There may have been more. 
                   For example in the somewhat flawed movie "Amadeus", 
                   Salieri's girlfriend was present as the hearse left the church
                   for the graveyard. 
                   The timing of the hearse was probably wrong, but she might
                   have been part of the 1-block procession *TO* the church for 
                   the funeral, if Salieri was part of it. 
                   The entire episode might have been simplified by Hollywood
                   to make it more understandable and more dramatic. 
                   In reality, Mozart's body might have been held at the church
                   for 2 days after the Funeral, and transported to the cemetery
                   at night, per the Winter Rules, with no one viewing the 
                   departure of the Hearse for the Graveyard.  
                    
 
      Tue Dec  6 - Funeral held at St. Stephens Cathedral, Vienna,
                   in the afternoon. 
                   3rd Class funeral (typical, middle class).  
 
      Tue Dec  6 - (Date uncertain). Body transported by hired hearse 
                   to St. Marx cemetery after 6pm, and buried.
                   (Possibly buried on Wednesday). 
                   Workers only (no friends) for the procession and burial. 
                   Not buried in a Pauper's grave. 
                   Mozart was probably buried at night.  
 

      Wed Dec  7 - If the 48-hour rule was followed, the body was held
                   at the church until Wednesday, then buried Wednesday
                   night.


 
      Sat Dec 10 - Requiem mass held at St. Michael's Church in Vienna 
                   (not St. Michael's of Salzburg).
                   Part of Mozart's Requiem might have been performed.  
 

      Tue Dec 13 - Announcement of the expenses for the Dec 10th service 
                   and who paid them, in a Viennese journal,
                   the "Auszug aus aller europaischen Zeitungen". 
 

      Tue Dec 13 - Announcement in a Prague newspaper of a memorial
                   service to be held for Mozart the next day, in
                   Prague. 

 
      Wed Dec 14 - Memorial service held at St. Nicholas Church in
                   Prague. Huge turnout with only 1 day's notice. 
                   At least 4,000 people attended since that's what the 
                   packed church would hold, and with no parking space 
                   left for any more carriages.   
                   A HUGE turnout!!    

 
      Fri Dec 16 - Newspaper report of the service at St. Michael's 
                   (Vienna) published in Der Heimliche Botschafter 
                   ("The Secret Ambassador" - a gossip-sheet paper,
                   but evidently a factual article.) 

 
      Sat Dec 31 - Newspaper report of the service at St.Michael's 
                   published in the Berlin journal Musikalisches 
                   Wochenblatt ("Musical Weekly").
      Sat Dec 31 - First epitaph published in the Wiener Zeitung  
                   ("Vienna Times") by "K".
                   Latin verse. We don't know who "K" was.
                   Possibly Leopold Kozeluch. 
 
      1792
      Tue Jan  3 - Second epitaph published in the Grazer Burgerzeitung 
                   by "K". (Same as the Dec 31st epitaph). 
                  
      Sat Jan  7 - Newspaper report of the service at St. Michael's 
                   published in the Salzburger Intelligenzblatt.
 
    Funeral:
       Tuesday, Dec 6, 1791.
       St. Stephens Cathedral, Vienna. 
       This was the next day after Mozart died. 
       (Mozart died on Monday Dec 5.  Funeral: Tuesday Dec 6.)   
       (The service was not held in the Chapel of the Cross in St. Stephens, 
       as it was no longer used by 1791).
       Mozart's funeral was one of 10 held that day in Vienna.
       He received a 3rd class funeral - 2nd and 3rd class funerals being 
       the usual kind.  A 2nd class funeral was for the upper class (lower
       than nobility), and bought more pallbearers and 2 priests. 
       But Mozart was a member of the "artists" class, which was not
       generally considered to be socially worthy of a 2nd Class funeral 
       (or the higher "noble/1st-class" funeral). 
       Thus, the 3rd class funeral.
       However, 3rd class funerals were very common and normal. 
       Most Viennese (99 percent) received 3rd class funerals which were 
       "Middle Class" funerals. 
       There was nothing dishonorable or embarrassing about receiving a
       3rd Class Funeral. 
       Today, of course, we would declare Mozart to be "Nobility" and insist 
       on a 1st class funeral for the greatest composer in the world.  
     
       Paid for by friend and benefactor, Baron Gottfried van Swieten.
       11 florins, 56 kreuzer for Mozart (3rd class funeral plus hired
       hearse for 3 gulden). A free hearse was available, but van
       Swieten paid for a private one since the free one would have been
       a "common" one, used to transport all the bodies for the day to
       the graveyard. So Mozart's body traveled alone on a private 
       hearse, rather than a "common" hearse with others. 
 
       Note that Baron van Swieten, along with others on the music staff,
       had just been let go from his official appointment 1 day earlier,
       on Monday December 5th - the day Mozart died. 
       Reason: Severe government budget problems in Austria. 
       Done as a cost-cutting measure.   
 
       The various dismissals and general lack of support for music in
       Vienna was due to the recent war with Turkey (1787-1791), which
       siphoned off much money from available government funds, caused
       social upheaval in Austria (and had caused many nobles to have to 
       travel to the front to fight the enemy, for a time, in order to 
       help an ally and possibly save Austria), raised food prices drastically 
       (sometimes doubling), closed theaters, caused the theft of bread from 
       some Viennese bakeries for the first time in history, and caused many 
       military deaths, due mostly to DISEASE, even killing Emperor Joseph II 
       with disease after he returned from the Front. 
       (HALF THE AUSTRIAN ARMY WAS SICK, including the Emperor. 
       After returning to Austria, the Emperor became sicker, and died.)  
 
       This latest war with the invading Barbarians (Islamic Turks) was one 
       of many fought by Austria against Turkey, over hundreds of years, since 
       at least the 1400's, with Austria usually winning through superior 
       weapons, tactics, city walls (at least 6 feet thick around Vienna), 
       large forts, and alliances with other countries, but at great cost 
       in lives and treasure. 
 
       Evidently, the government found itself over-extended in 1791, and had 
       to make many reductions in expenses, including the dismissal of van
       Swieten and others. 
       The Music Department is always a candidate for being on the chopping
       block because it's "optional". 
       But the city of Vienna and the country HAD to be saved, regardless 
       of the cost. With many dead people, and an occupying army of Barbarians
       killing, looting, torturing, and acting like insects, who would attend 
       concerts?? 
       Who would play in a concert?? 
       Who would purchase Mozart's music or take piano lessons?? 
       Who would compose peaceful, novel, and complex music with foreign
       terrorists standing in front of your house, sabers ready??  
       You can't have a normal, civilized society if everyone is living in
       fear, civilians imprisoned or killed, churches demolished, the clergy
       killed or imprisoned, books burned, music outlawed (it's against their 
       Gang Code), statues and monuments destroyed (it's against their Gang Code),
       etc, etc, by retarded illiterates.  
       (Field Marshall Ernst von Laudon was one of the heroes of this latest war
       with the Turks, and Mozart composed K.594 in his memory, for Mueller's
       Museum in Vienna). 
       The war HAD to be paid for, the Islamic Barbarians had to be kept out
       of the city to save the lives of the Viennese citizens (including 
       Mozart's life), but it drained much of the treasury. 
 
       Expenses now had to be trimmed, and many people were let go.
       We're lucky that the now unemployed Baron van Swieten had enough money,
       and enough caring and humanity, to be the one who stepped up to the
       plate and paid for a private hearse for Mozart. 
       It was a kind and caring tribute to his friend, Wolfgang Mozart. 
       God bless you, Herr van Swieten. Thank you. 
 
    Funeral Attendees:
       Not known for certain.
       
      
    Funeral Classes (With Burial Rules):
       The class of burial was part of the class of the funeral 
       (1st, 2nd, 3rd, or 4th).  
 
       1st Class Funeral:
          Price: 74 gulden. 
          For the nobility - OR anyone willing to pay for one.
          Fees were double that of a 2nd class funeral (37x2).
          Apparently buried in a coffin, which was the preferred form
             of burial by the citizens of Vienna.  
          Presumably, a commemorative placque on the graveyard wall 
          was permitted.
 
       2nd Class Funeral:
          Price: 37 gulden.
          6 pallbearers, 2 priests.
          Alter boys with candles - variable.
          Apparently buried in a coffin, which was the preferred form
             of burial by the citizens of Vienna.  
          Plain individual dirt grave (in a coffin). 
          Religious marker permitted.
          Grave location guaranteed for 7-10 years.
          Relative cost: Mozart's father was earning 400 gulden
            per year around 1778, and was well paid. So 37
            gulden would have been over 1 month's salary for a
            2nd Class funeral, using Leopold's salary as a guide.
          Musicians (including Mozart) might not have been permitted to 
            receive a 2nd Class funeral, since they were considered part 
            of the "Artists Class", and not exalted enough.  
            Musicians were generally considered to be Servants. 
            However, they might have been permitted to have a 2nd Class
            Funeral if they were willing to pay for it. 

     * 3rd Class Funeral: (Typical - Most popular)  (Mozart) 
          Price: 8 florins, 56 kreuzer.
          Free hearse.
          Note: Mozart's hearse was private, hired for 3 gulden.
                Thus the total for his funeral: 11 fl, 56 kr.
          4 pallbearers, 1 priest.
          Fewer alter boys with candles compared with 2nd Class - variable.
          Apparently buried in a coffin, which was the preferred form
             of burial by the citizens of Vienna.  
          Plain individual dirt grave (in a coffin). 
          Religious marker permitted (a small one). 
          Grave location guaranteed for 7-10 years. 
          Usual type of funeral for most people. 
          99% of the Viennese population received a 3rd Class Funeral. 
          Relative cost: Mozart set the fee for composing the
            Requiem at 250 florins. Count Walsegg (Requiem commissioner)
            paid 3,000 florins for the tomb for his wife.
            1 large tomb = approx 12 Requiems or 375 3rd Class funerals,
            making a 3rd Class Funeral fairly inexpensive by comparison. 
            Napoleon's troops later destroyed the tomb. But ironically,
            Mozart's Requiem was played at the stupid little General's 
            funeral, in a kind of poetic justice.  
            Additionally, Mozart thought he was being poisoned when he 
            was writing the Requiem (he wasn't), but Napoleon really
            WAS poisoned. (Finally!!)  
            If little Napoleon had been poisoned earlier, perhaps the
            Count Walsegg tomb for his wife would not have been destroyed
            by the stupid French troops, and we would be able to admire
            it today. 
            (His wife died on Valentine's Day after only 4 years of marriage.)
            And they might not have blasted off the nose on the Sphinx, so 
            we would have a better idea of what it originally looked like.        
          At any rate, a 3rd Class Funeral (with burial) wasn't as bad 
          as it sounds. It was a typical funeral for the Middle Class.
          A 2nd Class Funeral was only slightly better than a 3rd Class
          Funeral (2 priests instead of 1 priest, etc).  
          Today, we would insist on a First Class Funeral for Mozart,
          with the additional performance of his Requiem, and I'm 
          confident that he would receive one if he had died in modern times.
          Leopold's grave should be demolished as an affront to civilized
          society. 
 
       4th Class Funeral:
          Price: Free. 
          (The class for Paupers).   
          For the poor with no funds for a funeral. Proof required. 
          Burial?? Probably in a mass grave with no marker. I don't know.   
          Not applicable to Mozart. 
 
 

    Widow's Attendance: 
       It was considered inappropriate for the widow to attend her husband's 
       funeral, as she should be at home in rags with ashes in her hair, 
       mourning her husband's death. 
       Therefore, Constanze MIGHT not have attended the funeral, and MIGHT 
       have remained at home (or with friends), per the social customs of 
       the time. This practice changed very slowly over the next 150 years.
 
       Information from Tom Bouwmann, in Holland: Constance Mozart became 
       hysterical after Mozart died, and the doctor had to sedate her.    
       Gottfried van Swieten made arrangements with Herr Baurnfeld 
       (a friend of Schikander's) to stay at his home for a while. 
       She did not attend the funeral due to her emotional state. 
 
       Whatever the reason (social custom or emotional state), it's 
       doubtful that Constance attended the funeral.    
 
 

    Weather for the funeral on Tuesday afternoon, Dec 6th, 1791: 
       Cool, no rain, no snow, no wind. 
 
 

    Funeral Procession to Graveyard: 
       In the winter, it was not to occur before 6:00 pm, according to 
       an Imperial decree made on July 17, 1790, and conscientiously 
       followed by the churches in the area. 
       However, mourners never accompanied the hearse to the
       graveyard, so any "procession" to the graveyard would have
       consisted of just the workers, with no friends or relatives
       present.
       The only procession of mourners was the one from Mozart's house
       to St. Stephens Cathedral, carrying his body in a coffin, for the 
       funeral.  
 
    Cemetery: 
       Mozart was buried in St. Marx Cemetery (St. Marxer Friedhof). 
       This was one of 5 suburban cemeteries in the Vienna area at 
       that time. 
       10 kilometers from the church of the funeral, via narrow roads.
       Round trip distance from church to cemetery and back: Approximately 
       9 miles (20 kilometers). There were no trees on the cemetery
       grounds at that time.
 
    Burial: 
       Bodies were not to be buried for 48 hours following death
       in order to prevent live burials, but the rule had fallen into
       some disregard. If followed, Mozart's body would have been stored
       in a small room at the side of St. Stephens near the Capistrano
       pulpit after the funeral on Tuesday, and buried on Wednesday,
       December 7th. Otherwise, he would presumably have been buried on 
       Tuesday, December 6th, after the funeral, and after 6pm (if burials
       took place on a daily basis). 
       Burial date: Uncertain. Tuesday or Wednesday, December 6th or 7th. 
 
       No friends or relatives were present at the burial as this was not 
       done during that era.
 
    Grave: 
       From MSA article, January, 1998, by Walther Brauneis,
       originally written in 1991: "Mozart was buried in a "common
       individual grave" (allgemeines einfaches Grab), where the word
       "common" (allgemein), in keeping with the usage in the Josephone
       era [Emperor Joseph II], cannot be equated with "joint" or 
       "communal".  (MSA: Mozart Society of America).  
       (Walther Brauneis lives in Vienna). 
 
       German/English Dictionary (1987 edition):  
       "Allgemein - GENERAL, COMMON, UNIVERSAL".  
       Probable approximate synonyms: TYPICAL, USUAL.      
       (Not "communal" as Brauneis explained.
       Not with multiple bodies. Not a mass grave.)  
 
       "Common" therefore meant "general/common/universal" or.... 
       "general/typical/usual" rather than "shared/joint/communal", 
       from the dictionary. 
       The word "popular" should also loosely apply.  
     
       Communal: gemeinschaftlich.
       This would indicate a multi-person grave. A mass grave. 
       But it was NOT used in the description of 3rd Class funerals/burials,
       if that is what Brauneis was quoting.  
  
       German/English Dictionary (1987 ed): 
       "Einfach - simple, single, plain".  
       Which meaning did they mean for 3rd Class burials?? 
       These 3 dictionary definitions are not all synonyms. 
       "Simple/plain" does not mean "single" (or "individual"). 
       Brauneis is very vague on these terms, stating only what "Allgemein"
       does NOT mean.  
       This is rather ambiguous, messy, and obscure. 
 
       The 3rd Class Burial phrase MIGHT read:
       "Mozart was buried in a general/typical/usual simple/single/plain
       grave"  (allgemeines einfaches Grab).
 
       But Allgemein and Einfaches do not clarify or reinforce each other
       due to the ambiguity of "einfaches". 
       Was it an individual grave??? Probably, but some precision is lacking
       here. The word "einfaches" should not have been used, and some better
       word chosen.   
       Unless, of course, the definition of einfaches was slightly different
       and more precise in 1791 than it is today, and Brauneis is using the 
       1791 definition.   
 
 
       Therefore, using Brauneis' definitions, the dictionary definitions, 
       and a Synonym dictionary, 
       Mozart was buried in a ---
       "TYPICAL, USUAL, ORDINARY GRAVE - PROBABLY INDIVIDUAL", 
 
       as the only occupant - not a mass grave or a multi-person grave.  
       It could also be called a "Middle Class" grave - not upper class, 
       not aristocracy, and not a Pauper's grave.   
 
       He was carried to the grave in a coffin. 
 
       German wording: 
     Mozart was buried in an "allgemeines einfaches Grab"
     per Walther Brauneis (MSA Article, January 1998). 
 
     An INDIVIDUAL Grave??  Brauneis says Yes. 
     Brauneis is Austrian and lives in Vienna.  
     But it's ambiguous. 
     The Problem Word: EINFACHES.
 
     German/English Dictionary (1987 ed): 
     "Einfach - simple, single, plain".  
     Which meaning did they mean for 3rd Class burials 
     (the Emperor and the Vienna City Council)?? 
 
       "Einfaches" could mean "simple or plain", or it might mean 
       "single/individual". 
       Brauneis didn't clarify the meaning. 
       Did Brauneis know what they meant??  
 
       It could mean "simple" or "plain" per Langenscheid's 1987 dictionary, 
       and the phrase could default to:
       "A general, typical, usual, simple, plain, MASS GRAVE." if a mass
       grave was typical for 3rd Class burials, and we use simple/plain
       for the definition of einfaches.
       It would be legitimate to do so, since the definition for einfaches
       contains unrelated words, and the user is forced to choose which
       words he means.  
 
       Surely, einfaches does not always mean "simple and plain and individual". 
       Is a simple cheer at a football game always an individual cheer??
       Is an individual shirt always a simple and plain shirt?? 
       Is a simple wedding an individual wedding?? (For One Person??)  
       Hardly.  Einfaches is ambiguous. 
       It could mean simple, or plain, or individual, or any combination. 
       Defaulting to "individual" is baseless unless there's some
       compelling, contextual reason for doing so, such as a reference
       somewhere to 3rd Class burials being "one-person graves, unlike
       the mass graves of paupers", or similar verbiage.  
 
       But if a mass grave was the intended depository for 3rd Class bodies, 
       I think van Swieten would have somehow also arranged to have Mozart
       buried in an individual grave, since he rented a private (individual)
       hearse for transporting Mozart's body to the cemetery. 
       It wouldn't make much sense, emotionally, to honor Mozart with a 
       private hearse, only to have his body dumped in a mass grave. 
       Van Swieten would doubtless be aware of the burial arrangements for
       3rd Class, or would have checked with someone in order to ensure a 
       respectful burial for Mozart - IE, an individual grave for his friend. 
       I think we can be confident in our estimation of his psychological
       state since he ordered a private hearse for Mozart. 
       In that state of mind (honoring his friend as best he could, and not
       mixing his body in with all the other dead people - all strangers),
       I doubt that he would have permitted the Church to bury his friend 
       in a mass grave. 
       The private hearse would be almost pointless, and Mozart's final 
       resting place in a mass grave would probably haunt him for the rest 
       of his life.    
 
       GRAVE/BURIAL CONCLUSION: 
    Mozart was almost certainly buried 
    in an individual grave.
 
       (And buried in a Coffin. See the Coffin Section.) 
 
       Mozart was almost certainly buried in an individual grave - not a 
       mass grave, despite the ambiguity of some of the wording cited by 
       Walther Brauneis, and based on the actions of Mozart's friend, Baron 
       Gottfried van Swieten, who hired a private hearse for the trip to
       the cemetery. 
 
       Brauneis at the very least implied it, at the very most stated it, and 
       van Swieten would have insisted and paid for an individual grave 
       if it had not been customary for 3rd Class funerals/burials. 
 
       It's speculation, but it has a solid basis since we know that
       van Swieten DID pay for a PRIVATE HEARSE, even though a Free Hearse 
       was available (but with other Bodies), implying that Mozart was
       special - not common or ordinary, and not to be treated as common
       or ordinary, with the possible exception of the 3rd Class funeral, 
       required by law, but which was an honorable class of funeral. 
 
       A Private Hearse and an Individual Grave make sense. 
       Van Swieten, who paid for the Private Hearse, would have ensured 
       that Mozart was buried in an Individual Grave for the same reason
       that he paid for a Private Hearse: Honor and Respect for Mozart.  
        
 
    Wife's Visit: 
       Constance Mozart first visited the cemetery in 1808 
       (17 years after Mozart died), in search of Wolfgang's grave. 
       This may have been her only visit, as well. 
       The original gravedigger had died by then, and she spoke with 
       Joseph Rothmeyer, another gravedigger. He told Constanze that he 
       did not know the exact location of the grave, since it was 17 years
       earlier that Mozart was buried, he wasn't there, and any grave markers 
       had long since disappeared (if there were any). 
       But the grave had probably been recycled several years earlier,
       anyway (in 1801 or a little earlier).
 
       Why did it take Constance 17 years to visit Mozart's grave??
       I don't know, but I can think of at least one possibility: She had
       discovered the letters from Nancy Storace, and possibly other
       memorabilia, such as the entry in his catalog for a song, annotated
       "For Madam Storace and Me" (K.505), the LOST cantata for voice and 
       piano for Nancy Storace's recovery after losing her voice (K.477a),
       by Mozart, Salieri, and others, and possibly other items related to 
       Nancy Storace - such as LETTERS.   
 
       I don't know if Constance stumbled upon the cantata, or not, or if it
       caused her to feel jealous.  Mozart might have told her about it,
       anyway, and the music was advertised in the newspaper in September of
       1785 as being available for purchase from Artaria. 
       But it's one thing to read about it in the newspaper, and quite another
       to find the music with the words.  
       And it's another "Nancy Storace" item - a name that might have popped up 
       a bit too often, as she went through his papers after he died.  
       (Mozart didn't enter this piece in his Catalog, possibly because he 
       wasn't the only composer.) 
 
       (*** K.477a, the LOST cantata celebrating Nancy Storace's voice recovery,
       has been discovered in February 2016, in Czech, and performed on the
       piano on YouTube. It's rather boring. Uninspired.) 
 
       Nancy could neither sing nor speak from June 2nd, 1785, until sometime in
       September, having lost her voice while performing an opera on stage on
       June 1st. She had been singing leading operatic roles from an early age -
       straining her young, undeveloped voice, until it finally gave out.
       She was about 19 years old when her voice gave out.
       Mozart wrote the part of Susanna in Figaro with her in mind, premiered
       in May, 1786, and lowered Susanna's pitches to accommodate her voice.
       The version of Figaro we hear today is done with the original pitches.
       As Susanna, her sense of comedy was a big hit with the audience, and 
       subsequent Susanna's were not nearly as popular.  
   
       We know that there are many missing letters, to and from Mozart, and
       we know that Nancy Storace burned the letters from Mozart shortly
       before she died. She had the opportunity to get rid of some kind of
       evidence before she died, whereas, Mozart did not have such a chance.
       Mozart apparently realized he was dying (or thought he was dying)
       only at the last minute. 
       And if the Doctor Quack hadn't given him emetics and Bled him, he
       might have LIVED. 
       His medical situation was very serious, but not necessarily deadly.   
 
       The relationship between the wife's husband and "the other woman" may 
       have angered her quite a bit. Such a relationship might not have been
       intimate, but Constance probably had no way of determining their
       precise status, and assumed (or read) the worst. Even if the 
       relationship between Wolfgang and Nancy were "platonic", it was
       certainly strong, and Constance would have seen that. Thus, there is
       a possibility that Constance didn't visit Mozart's grave for so long
       out of spite. 
 
       (I don't know how far their relationship went.)
       But it was inevitable that Wolfgang would be attracted to Nancy Storace, 
       just as he was attracted to Aloysia. 
       And that would have angered Constance when she discovered what was 
       going on.  
       She may have said to herself, "Let your girlfriend Nancy Storace visit
       your grave. I won't do it."
 
    Religious Markers/Crosses: 
       Permitted. 
       Per Walter Brauneis, MSA article, January, 1998. 
       According to Brauneis, a tombstone with epitaph was probably erected 
       for Mozart. 
       HOWEVER, this does not prove that a tombstone existed - especially 
       for a 3rd class grave. And it would have been removed when the grave 
       was recycled, 7-10 years later.  
       No original tombstone or marker has been discovered. Additionally, 
       any religious markers were only a few inches high on such graves. 
       If there WAS a tombstone or marker, it had evidently disappeared 
       by the time Constanze visited the cemetery, 17 years later, since 
       no one there knew where Mozart was buried. 
 
       Status: Unknown if a tombstone or marker were erected over the grave.
       If it was done, it apparently served no purpose.
       There is no tombstone or marker present today, for Mozart, and no one
       has ever reported one being present, to my knowledge. 
       Mozart's grave was recycled long ago, to make room for more bodies.    
       (I don't know what "recycled" means. It might mean that any tombstones
       and markers are removed, and new bodies are added on top of the old
       bodies, with an optional tombstone or religious marker set on top.)     
       (Note that Mozart was almost certainly buried in a coffin.)
       (Note that most people were probably buried in a coffin during that
       era, per the decision of the Vienna City Council.)   
 
       An epitaph to Mozart signed only by "K" was published in 2 Austrian 
       newspapers (Vienna and Graz) within 3 weeks of his death, titled 
       "To Mozart: An Inscription For His Grave". 
       (We don't know who "K" was. Perhaps Leopold Kozeluch, the composer??). 
       The epitaph published in 2 newspapers (The Wiener Zeitung,
       Dec 31, 1791, and the Grazer Burgerzeitung, Jan 3, 1792),
       There's no evidence that the inscription was actually added to a 
       tombstone over Mozart's grave. 

       Translated from the original Latin: 
 
 
                              TO MOZART
                      AN INSCRIPTION FOR HIS GRAVE 
                      ----------------------------   
                    [To Mozart,] who rests here,
                    As a child, swelled the world's wonders 
                       with the strings of his lyre;
                    As a man, he surpassed Orpheus himself.
                    Go hence! And pray earnestly for his soul!
                    [Signed] K.
                    [Possibly "Kozeluch"]   

 
 
   Original verse,
   in Latin, 
   as published: 
 
                   MOZARDI    

                   TUMULO INSCRIBENDUM

                   Qui jacet hic, Chordis Infans Miracula Mundi

                   Auxit; et Orpheum Vir superavit.

                   Abi! Et animae ejus bene precare!

                   K. 

 

 
    Placques: 
       Commemorative placques on the cemetery walls were allowed
       only for the nobility, which Mozart did not belong to.
       Therefore, there was no commemorative placque for Mozart placed
       on the cemetery wall, per the law, and none have been found.
 
    Max Number of Bodies in a Common Grave: 6. 
       (Listed for general information only).
       Multiple bodies per grave appears not to have been the practice 
       in Vienna at that time, and does NOT apply to Mozart's burial. 
       Especially after going through the horrors of the Plague, not
       long before.   
       NOT applicable to Mozart.
 
    Grave Recycling: 
       Done every 7-10 years for common graves, to create new burial plots. 
       Did this include Mozart's grave??
       An individual grave?? Yes. Locations of 3rd Class burials were
       guaranteed for 7-10 years, implying that recycling took place
       every 7-10 years for 3rd Class burials. 
       What EXACTLY does "Recycling" mean??  What do they do??
       I don't know. 
       It might mean that they simply remove the Crosses or other identifiers
       from the ground and/or the Walls (if applicable), and dig new graves
       anywhere within that area being Recycled.   
       I doubt that they dig down to the coffins and smash the coffins, as
       that would require a huge amount of work, and not accomplish much.   
 
    Reason for Cheap Funerals: 
       Churches were charging large sums of money for plots, leaving some 
       families penniless from paying for the burial and headstone. 
       Also, health was an issue. Emperor Joseph II implemented these 
       and other changes in 1784.
       This might have been one of MANY reasons why the Freemasons despised
       the Catholic Church.  
 
    Requiem Mass on Sat, Dec 10th: 
       2nd class Mass given at St.Michael's Church, Vienna. 
       The expenses were paid by the two theater directors Emanuel Schikaneder 
       and Joseph von Bauernfeld.
       The first 2 movements of Mozart's Requiem are believed to have
       been performed (Introit and Kyrie), per newspaper accounts of the
       day (Vienna, Salzburg, and Berlin) which varied in their details,
       with the Vienna paper "Der Heimliche Botschafter" ("The Secret
       Ambassador"), a short-lived, hand-written, unreliable news-sheet
       possibly serving as the source for the rest with the first report
       (on Dec. 16th) of the memorial service, implying that the entire
       Requiem had been performed - an impossibility.  Of the 2
       movements possibly performed, the Introit was nearly complete
       (perhaps 95-99% complete), and the Kyrie had been left less
       complete (not all of the instrumental parts had been filled-in in
       both cases) and might have been completed quickly prior to the
       performance. This performance of the 2 sections of the Requiem
       would have been in addition to the rest of the mass.
 
       An organ accompaniment, found among Sussmayr's papers, which runs
       from measure 21 of the Introit (starting with the soprano solo,
       (Te decet hymnus) to the end of the Kyrie, constitutes some
       additional evidence that the Introit and Kyrie were performed
       on December 10th. Mitigating in favor of "proof",
       one could ask, "Why else would Sussmayr have music of an
       instrumental part of the Requiem for only those 2 movements,
       since the only possible partial performance would have consisted
       of those 2 movements (the Introit and Kyrie) on December 10th 
       (as far as we know)?"
       Later performances were of the entire, completed Requiem.
       Conversely, what happened to the organ accompaniment for measures
       1-20 of the Introit? Why weren't they also found among Sussmayr's
       papers? The bass accompaniment is marked "Violoncello, Basso ed
       Organo", and notes for that part exist from measure 1. Perhaps
       that portion was lost. We can assume, however, that any
       performance of the Requiem - complete or partial - began at
       measure 1, so the missing first 20 measures are not indicative of
       another performance starting at measure 21...
 
       Someone (probably Sussmayr) made a number of mistakes in the
       Basset Horn parts when completing the Kyrie.  With all the
       mistakes made, the performance of the Kyrie would probably not
       have sounded very good! Completion mistakes: There was really
       only one, big, fundamental mistake which resulted in many wrong
       notes being written: Sussmayr thought the Basset Horn part was to
       be written in the key of C major - as if it were part of the
       French Horn family - instead of A major for this movement 
       (D minor transposed for the Basset Horn), and added sharps and flats
       where needed. 
       This was incorrect, resulting in many wrong notes for the 
       Basset Horns in the Kyrie [at least 26 wrong notes],
       until fixed at a later date.  The autograph score survives with
       these mistakes still viewable in the Kyrie, since Sussmayr wrote
       on the autograph score.  
 
       The point is that the Kyrie would have sounded rather awful 
       (cacophonous) played on December 10th with those mistakes, and 
       certainly not as Mozart had intended.
       I wonder what the audience at St. Michael's thought?? 
 
       2 placques commemorating the first playing of the 2 Requiem
       sections were erected at St. Michael's Church in the early
       1990s, after articles on this subject were published.
       Note: The 2nd Class Mass at St. Michael's was not the 3rd Class 
       Mass at St. Stephens. 
       Evidently they made an exception for Mozart with a 2nd Class Mass
       at St. Michael's, perhaps because it was his own Requiem. 
 
       So Mozart received a 3rd Class Funeral, a 3rd Class Burial, 
       and a 2nd Class Requiem Mass in Vienna, soon after his death,
       with part of his own Requiem played at the Requiem Mass on
       December 10th (although the Kyrie probably sounded awful).
       If Hollywood makes a movie which includes the December 10th 
       performance of the Requiem, I would recommend that they skip
       the Kyrie, and just play the Introit. 
       The Introit is much better and more somber than the Kyrie,
       anyway.     
 
       St. Michael's Church is located next to the Hofburg where Walther
       Brauneis has his office, which is located across the courtyard
       from the old Imperial Chapel where the Vienna Boys Choir sing
       Sunday Mass.
 
    Memorial Service on Wed, Dec 14th, Prague: 
       Huge memorial service held at St. Nicholas Church in Prague, 
       at 11am, with bell ringing starting at 10:30am. 
       Over 4,000 people attended (the church was overflowing) on
       one-day's notice (the notice appeared in the newspaper on the
       day before the service). A Requiem was performed, but we don't
       know whose (it could not have been Mozart's as it wasn't
       finished, etc).
 
    Skull: 
       The Mozarteum is in possession of a skull, supposedly
       Mozart's.  This is not the "Death Mask", but a real skull.  
       They claim it's not Mozart's, but refuse to do DNA testing.
       (I agree. It's not Mozart's skull.) 
       (It's a FAKE and it's RIDICULOUS!!) 
       The Mozarteum's position is that the skull is not Mozart's.
       See Archeology Magazine, March/April 1991, pp. 38 ff, for a
       picture and an article.
       The skull has more teeth than Mozart's mouth at the time of
       death, per Dan Leeson, per another Mozartian.
       The skull has 27 teeth, Mozart's had 23, as counted after the
       time of death, per a medical certificate discovered by
       Walter Brauneis.
       (Dan Leeson has held the skull in his hands.)
       Therefore, if the tooth count of both skulls is correct, the
       skull cannot be Mozart's, and the Mozarteum is correct.
 
       Additionally, the "rescuer" of the skull was the same Joseph
       Rothmeyer who told Constanze, when she came looking for Mozart's
       grave, that he didn't know where it had been located. This also
       casts doubt on the authenticity of the skull. Of course, the
       grave had been recycled by the time Constanze visited the
       cemetery, but the supposed "rescuer of the skull" should have
       remembered approximately where he had rescued it from!
       He could therefore have pointed out to Constance where he found
       the skull, but didn't do so, and said he didn't know where Mozart
       had been buried (if that was the sequence of events).
          Or......    
       After 10 years the grave is recycled. 
       After 17 years, a new employee says he doesn't know where Mozart 
       is buried (I believe it). 
       Then he finds a skull which he claims is Mozart's. 
       (How would he know??? The new employee knew where Mozart's skull
       was located after the grave was recycled, and 17 years after he
       was buried??).  
       His story makes no sense, and he was not the original gravedigger. 
       The story and skull are just rather obvious fakes. 
       (I hate to use the term "Obvious" - over-used, wrongly used, foolishly
       used, etc - but a few things really are Obvious. 
       The skull is about as genuine as an Elvis sighting on the Moon.)   
       The new employee, who didn't know where Mozart was buried, and who
       claimed that he found Mozart's skull - a skull that doesn't resemble
       Mozart, was just trying to make some money (illicitly) or gain fame
       (illicitly). 
       It's just a ridiculous, stupid story.   
 
    Hair: Geburtshaus - 1 lock in 1970.  Authentic as far as is known.
          (Salzburg)   (I saw 1 lock of hair in a glass case in 1970 at
                        the Geburtshaus in Salzburg. 
                        In 1988, it was no longer on display.) 
                        Color of hair lock: Dark blond.
 
          Mozarteum -   2 locks.
          (Salzburg)    a. 1 lock of Wolfgang's hair.
                        b. 1 lock of Wolfgang's hair and both son's hair.
 
          Betramkahaus - 1 lock.  Said to be verified as authentic.
          (Prague)       Hermetically sealed under glass.
                         Color of hair lock: Medium-light blond.
 
 
                         ........................................
            
 
      MOZART'S FUNERAL: 
      TUESDAY, DECEMBER 6TH, AT ST. STEPHEN'S CATHEDRAL IN VIENNA. 
      PAID FOR BY A FRIEND (VAN SWIETEN).
      WEATHER: COOL, NO RAIN, NO SNOW, NO WIND.  
 
      MOZART RECEIVED A 3RD CLASS FUNERAL, WHICH WAS A COMMON TYPE OF
      FUNERAL IN VIENNA (A MIDDLE CLASS FUNERAL).   
      MOST VIENNESE RECEIVED 3RD CLASS FUNERALS.  
      IT WAS NOT A FUNERAL FOR PAUPERS (WHICH WOULD BE 4TH CLASS).   
 
      BURIAL: 
      TUESDAY DECEMBER 6TH (THE DAY OF THE FUNERAL), OR WEDNESDAY 
      DECEMBER 7TH, DEPENDING ON WHETHER CERTAIN RULES WERE FOLLOWED.
      IF THERE ARE RELIABLE DOCUMENTS WHICH STATE THAT THE BURIAL TOOK
      PLACE ON DECEMBER 6TH (OR 7TH), THEN SO BE IT.  
 
      MOZART'S HEARSE WAS A PRIVATE ONE (NOT THE FREE "COMMON" ONE), 
      PAID FOR BY A FRIEND (VAN SWIETEN).
 
      HIGHLY UNLIKELY THAT ANYONE FOLLOWED THE HEARSE TO THE CEMETERY  
      SINCE THAT WAS NOT THE CUSTOM, AND IT WAS 10 KILOMETERS ONE-WAY
      (ROUND TRIP: 20 KILOMETERS/9 MILES) ON NARROW ROADS, AND THE  
      JOURNEY AND BURIAL PROBABLY TOOK PLACE AT NIGHT. 
 
      THE TRIP TO THE CEMETERY (AND THE BURIAL) TOOK PLACE AT NIGHT 
      (AFTER 6 PM), PER A RECENT IMPERIAL DECREE, WHICH THE CHURCHES 
      FOLLOWED. MOVIES AND PAINTINGS SHOWING A DAYTIME TRIP AND BURIAL 
      ARE THEREFORE INCORRECT, AND MAY HAVE BEEN CREATED TO MAKE THE 
      STORY FLOW BETTER (CHURCH TO HEARSE TO CEMETERY TO BURIAL).  
      IN THIS ONE CASE, I DON'T MIND THAT THE EVENTS WERE COMPRESSED 
      FOR THE SAKE OF TELLING A COHERENT STORY. IT'S EASIER TO GRASP 
      AND REMEMBER. 
      BUT WE ALSO NEED TO KNOW THE FACTS, OF COURSE. 
      THE TRUTH IS: MOZART'S HEARSE TRAVELED TO THE CEMETERY AT NIGHT
      (ALMOST CERTAINLY), AND MOZART WAS BURIED AT NIGHT, BASED ON THE 
      EVIDENCE. 
 
      (I DON'T KNOW WHY THERE WAS AN IMPERIAL DECREE ON 17 JULY 1790 THAT
      TRIPS TO THE CEMETERY IN THE WINTER MUST NOT BEGIN UNTIL AFTER 6 PM,
      BUT IT MIGHT HAVE HAD SOMETHING TO DO WITH ALL THE DEATH AND DISEASE
      RAMPANT IN AUSTRIA AT THAT TIME. THERE WOULD HAVE BEEN MORE HEARSES 
      THAN USUAL, BUT THEY WOULD BE "LESS VISIBLE" TO THE PUBLIC, TRAVELING
      AT NIGHT.  
      PEOPLE WOULD BE A LITTLE LESS AWARE OF HOW SERIOUS THE PROBLEM WAS,
      WITH SO MANY CITIZENS DYING. IT WOULD BE NICE TO KNOW THE REASON. 
      IN ANY EVENT, IT WOULD HAVE BEEN DARK AFTER 6 PM IN EARLY DECEMBER, 
      NEAR THE SHORTEST DAY OF THE YEAR (DECEMBER 21ST), AND DARKER STILL 
      AT BURIAL TIME, SOMETIME AROUND 6:30 PM OR LATER, DEPENDING ON THE 
      DEPARTURE TIME OF THE HEARSE.)  
 
      MOZART WAS BURIED IN THE ST. MARX CEMETERY IN THE VIENNA AREA,
      NOT THE "CENTRAL CEMETERY" IN VIENNA, WHERE THERE'S A STATUE OF MOZART. 
 
      HE WAS BURIED ALONE, PER WALTHER BRAUNEIS.
      PROBABLY BURIED IN A COFFIN.   
 
      THERE WAS NO PLAQUE OR LARGE MARKER ERECTED FOR MOZART'S GRAVE.  
      A RELIGIOUS SYMBOL WAS PERMITTED FOR 3RD CLASS BURIALS.    
 
      HIGHLY UNLIKELY THAT A TOMBSTONE WAS ERECTED (NOT DONE FOR  
      3RD CLASS BURIALS). 
 
      THE "SKULL" IS DEFINITELY NOT MOZART'S (TOO MANY TEETH, PER 
      WALTHER BRAUNEIS, AND DOES NOT RESEMBLE ANY PAINTINGS.)
      IT'S AN OBVIOUS FAKE PUT FORTH BY THE NEW GRAVEDIGGER, AT LEAST
      17 YEARS AFTER MOZART WAS BURIED BY SOMEONE ELSE AT NIGHT, 
      SUPPOSEDLY RESCUED AFTER THE GRAVES HAD BEEN FURTHER RANDOMIZED
      BY RECYCLING YEARS EARLIER, IN 1801.   
 
      THE GYPSUM DEATH MASK OWNED BY CONSTANCE HAS DISAPPEARED (SMASHED 
      BY CONSTANCE BY HER OWN ADMISSION, "ACCIDENTALLY"). 
 
      NO PHYSICAL TRACES OF MOZART REMAIN EXCEPT FOR 2 OR 3 LOCKS OF HAIR. 
 
      PERSONAL NOTE: 
      I HAVE SEEN ONE LOCK OF MOZART'S HAIR IN 1970, AND IT WAS DARK BLOND. 
 
                         ........................................
 
    Ironies:
      a. Mozart's funeral took place in St. Stephen's Cathedral.
         He was also married in that church (August 4, 1782), and was
         the assistant Kapellmeister at the time of his death.
 
       b. Count Josef Deym von Stritetz (proprietor of Mueller's Wax
          Museum and Art Gallery of Vienna) made Mozart's death mask.
          Previously, he had employed Mozart to write a kind of memorial
          piece for mechanical organ for General Field Marshall Gideon
          Ernst Freiherr von Laudon, (K.594) completed in December of
          1790), who had died on July 14th, 1790. Von Laudon was a major
          military figure in Austria, having saved Austria in the
          Turkish war in October, 1789, marked by the Viennese by a
          huge, 3-day celebration. The Field Marshall's large, elaborate
          tomb is located in the Vienna suburb of Hadersdorf, although
          his tomb is not in a cemetery, and its location is not on any
          tourist maps, nor well-known to taxi drivers.
          You would probably need to show the Taxi driver a map, showing
          the location of Von Laudon's tomb (circled by you), to visit
          Von Laudon's tomb.   
          Additionally, Hadersdorf is a SUBURB of Vienna - not the City
          proper. 
          
          Note: A drawing showing "an artist's conception of von
          Laudon's tomb", available on the web and in some publications,
          is NOT of von Laudon's tomb, and is considerably more
          elaborate; rather, it is an etching of the mausoleum used in
          Mueller's Wax Museum for von Laudon, but it is more elaborate
          then the actual tomb.  Photos of von Laudon's tomb illustrate
          that it is different from the drawing.  Nevertheless, von
          Laudon's tomb IS rather large and elaborate, just less so (by
          several statues and some architecture) than the "artist's
          conception".
 
          Count Franz von Walsegg (age 27) commissioned a Requiem from 
          Mozart (for 250 florins) in the summer of 1791, in memory of his 
          recently deceased wife, Countess Anna Walsegg 
          (nee Maria Anna Theresa Prenner von Flammberg, born Sep 1770),
          who had died on Valentine's Day, February 14, 1791 at the age
          of 20, after 4 years of marriage, 7 months to the day after
          Field Marshall Laudon died. Anna Walsegg's marble and granite
          tomb, which was located on Count Walsegg's grounds at
          Stuppach, Austria (in a field next to his castle) which cost
          the Count 3,000 florins and was a copy of (or similar to) the
          Field Marshall's tomb, was destroyed by French troops in the
          1800s, during the Napoleonic wars. Her husband had her
          re-buried in a niche in a church in Schottwein, 4 miles from
          Stuppach, where he is also interred.  They had no children.
          (She MAY have died from an accidental, spontaneous abortion,
          which became infected, or had some other problem. 
          No one knows the exact medical cause, although she was attended
          by a Doctor.)
 
          Count Walsegg may have seen the Laudon-like mausoleum in 
          Mueller's Wax Museum in Vienna and heard Mozart's accompanying
          music (K.594), thus ordering both tomb and funeral music based
          on the same inspiration - the tomb from the architect of
          von Laudon's tomb, and the Requiem from Mozart. (The Wax
          Museum was a popular place to visit with its mechanical
          organs and displays, so Walsegg probably visited it). 
	  
          So, Mozart wrote 2 memorial pieces for people buried in tombs
          of the same design: The Field Marshall and Countess Anna
          Walsegg. The first was K.594, and the second was K.626.  And
          the man who had commissioned the first piece, made Mozart's
          death mask, while the unfinished Requiem lay nearby.  Mozart's
          grave and Countess Walsegg's grave were both either recycled
          (Mozart) or destroyed (Anna Walsegg).
 
       c. Mozart's death mask, like all such masks of their time,  was
          made mostly of gypsum. The gypsum was probably supplied by the
          only gypsum supplier in the area: Count Walsegg's gypsum
          factory. Thus, the man who commissioned the Requiem probably
          supplied the raw materials for the composer's death mask.
 
          So, Count Deym (Wax Museum, K.594) made Mozart's death mask, and 
          Count Walsegg (Requiem, K.626) probably supplied the gypsum for it.
          Then Constance destroyed it. 
          And little Napoleon's troops destroyed Countess Walsegg's tomb. 
 
       d. Mozart's Requiem was NOT played at Count Walsegg's funeral,
          many years later (as far as we know), since it was not
          generally known even then that he had commissioned it.
          However, the lack of knowledge of his being the commissioner
          was due to his secrecy about the commission.
          (If the Requiem was played at his funeral or for a memorial
          service, that information was never published or made publicly
          known).
 
          So, the man who commissioned the Requiem most likely didn't even 
          have the honor of having it performed at his own funeral.
          (But that was never his intent. He commissioned the Requiem
          to have it played annually on the anniversary of his wife's
          death - Countess Anna Walsegg.)    
 
       e. Joseph Eybler, Mozart's composition pupil who added some
          finishing touches to the Requiem (prior to Sussmayr's
          involvement), suffered a non-fatal stroke while conducting the
          Requiem in 1833. However, the stroke ended his career. He
          died in 1846. Eybler composed a Requiem in C minor in 1803.
 
       f. Mozart's Requiem was performed for both of his sons when they
          died (Carl - 1784-1858, and Franz - 1791-1844, baptized as 
          "Franz Xaver Mozart",  but known as "Wolfgang" and "Wowi" to
          his parents).
 
       g. Emperor Leopold set about reducing the staff of his "music
          department" in 1791 from what Joseph II had built up,
          dismissing such notables as Lorenzo daPonte, Salieri, and
          Gottfried van Swieten, as well as others. Van Swieten's
          dismissal notice arrived on December 5, 1791 - the same day
          Mozart died. The reason for the dismissals may have been due
          to a lack of money for the "extras" caused by the recent war
          with the Turkish invaders, which drained the government treasury. 
 
       h. Mozart's Requiem was performed in memory of Napolean
          Bonaparte, in Paris, at the church of Saint-Louis de
          Invalides, on December 15, 1840, when his body was transferred
          from Saint Helene Island to the church and re-interred. (It
          has been proven that Napolean was poisoned with arsenic).
          This performance was done in memory of the same man whose
          troops had destroyed the tomb of the very person it had been
          commissioned for (Anna Walsegg).
 
       i. Also buried in St. Marx Cemetery besides Wolfgang Mozart:
          1. Franz Sussmayr (primary completer of the Requiem).
          2. Maximilian Stadler (student and completer of some Mozart
             pieces).
          3. Anna Gottlieb (sang in Figaro and the Magic Flute).
          4. Franz Niemetshek.
          5. Albrechtsberger.
          6. Thomas Leopold Mozart (infant son of Wolfgang and Constanze).
          7. Probably 1 of the 3 other Mozart children who died in infancy
             (children of WAM and CM).
          8. Joseph Rothmeyer (a gravedigger at St. Marx who supposedly
             "rescued"  Mozart's skull (a false claim). We know exactly 
             where Herr Rothmeyer is buried.)
 
       j. There is a cenotaph for Mozart located in the Zentralfriedhof
          (Central Cemetery) in Vienna. 
          Other burials in this cemetery include:
          1.  Antonio Salieri
          2.  Ludwig van Beetoven (moved from the Wahringer Cemetery)
          3.  Johannes Brahms
          4.  Carl Czerny
          5.  Christoph Gluck
          6.  Arnold Schoenberg
          7.  Franz Schubert      (moved from the Wahringer Cemetery)
          8.  Johann Strauss, Jr
          9.  Johann Strauss, Sr
          10. Josef Strauss
          11. Franz von Suppe

 
       k. Salzburg bomb damage:
          A few bombs were dropped on Salzburg during WW2.
          Among the buildings damaged on Oct 16, 1944 were:
          One of the homes the Mozart family lived in (Leopold,
          his wife, Wolfgang, and sister). 
          This was the Tanzmeisterhaus, Makartplatz 8, which was 2/3 destroyed.
          The house is now owned by the Mozarteum.   
          Reconstruction on the house began in 1994, directed by the Mozarteum. 
          Before the Mozart's moved in, it was known as the famous
          Tanzmeisterhaus, where dancing lessons and court ceremony
          procedures for aristocrats were given.
 
       l. Vienna bomb damage:  
          Vienna received heavy bomb damage during WW2.
          87,000 houses were destroyed. 
          Among the buildings damaged were:
          1. One of the homes Mozart had lived in. 
          2. St. Stephen's Cathedral (Marriage and Funeral).
          3. St. Marx Cemetery (Burial).
             (St. Marx is a suburb of Vienna.)  



 
          TOTAL Mozartian bomb damage (Salzburg and Vienna):
          At least 4 locations: Home, Home, Cathedral, Cemetery.  
             Salzburg - Home. 
             Vienna -   Home. 
             Vienna -   St. Stephens Cathedral. 
             St. Marx (Vienna area) - Cemetery.
 
          (There are probably more damaged "Mozart" locations, such as 
          in Munich, Berlin, London, Paris, etc.)  
 
          It's rather surprising that so many Mozart landmarks
          were damaged. 
 
          Note: Most damage has been repaired. 
          When I was in Munich, in 1989, the Army Barracks had
          intentionally not been repaired or torn down, and had
          obviously been bombed. 
          As I recall, it was located next to a major highway
          leading into the city from the south, so that thousands
          of people saw it every day.    
          However, Marienplatz, a Middle Ages square of shops and
          houses which had been destroyed by the bombing, was rebuilt 
          in the 1950's exactly as it had been before the war. 
          It looked 500 years old, but was only a few decades old. 
          An amazing accomplishment.  

 
       m. One reason for Mozart's debts in later life may have been 
          due to loans owed to Prince Lichnowsky.
          (I've read that even his family couldn't stand the "Prince"). 
          According to one report, all of Lichnowsky's papers were lost 
          in a fire in Prague during WW2, in his Prague residence where 
          his papers were kept. 
          Prague was the site of some of Mozart's greatest musical
          successes. Even Lichnowsky was a pupil of Mozart's.    
 
 
 2. Mozart's Mother - Anna Maria Walburga Pertl Mozart.
    Paris. 
    Original burial location: Church Graveyard (1 of 3 Graveyards). 
    Body no longer present due to grave recycling.
    Exact original location unknown.    
 
    Father: Wolfgang Nikolaus Pertl.
    Mother: Euphrosina Pertl. (Eva Rosina). 
    Christened December 25, 1720, St. Gilgen, Austria, located on
       Lake Wolfgangsee (near Salzburg). 
    Died July 3, 1778, Paris, in her Hotel room, age 57. 
         Wolfgang was present.  
         Many causes of death. Primary cause: Typhus.  
    Funeral: Apparently, no Funeral was held for Mozart's mother.    
    Burial: July 4, 1778, Saint-Eustache Church Graveyard, Paris, France.
       Exact location unknown. Wolfgang was present for the burial. 
       Grave recycled (and reused) many years ago.   
 
 
    The death registrations for that era (and birth and marriage
    registrations) were consumed by fire in May, 1871, when the City
    Hall (and another building which held the backup copies of
    documents) were intentionally burned down by insurrectionists
    (Communards). 
    (The government had been taken over by Peasants in 1789.)
    The location of Mrs. Mozart's grave is therefore unknown. 
 
    However, at that time in Paris, headstones were rare, communal 
    graves were the norm, and graves were recycled every 9 to 20 years. 
    Ie, there probably never WAS a "Mrs. Mozart's Grave" with
    her, alone, in it.  
    Her grave therefore is not only unknown, it almost certainly doesn't 
    exist anymore, never existed as a sole-occupant grave, and was probably 
    recycled over 200 years ago. 
 
    After recycling, the bones were placed in ossuaries, such as the catacombs 
    under the streets of Paris, which tourists can visit. These methods 
    were a kind of primitive form of cremation, where the body held little 
    or no value after death, and the headstone would have to consist of 
    the memories of friends and relatives.
 
    A memorial tablet bearing her name is located in the church of
    Saint-Eustache in the St. Caecelia chapel. Saint-Eustache is a
    large, impressive church with a high (3-story?), vaulted ceiling,
    and a huge, 5-manual pipe organ.
 
    Leopold, Wolfgang's "agent" who kept most of the proceeds of the
    tours, and had sent him and his mother on this tour, blamed Wolfgang
    for his mother's death and said so more than once to the son. 
 

 3. Mozart's son - 1 of 2 - Franz Xaver Mozart, aka, Wolfgang Jr. or Wowi. 
    Baptized as "Franz Xaver" but known as "Wolfgang" (or "Wowi") by his parents. 
    Moved - Possibly Missing.  Karlsbad??  
    Nickname pronounced "Vo-vee". 
    Born July 26, 1791, Vienna.
    Died July 29, 1844, in Karlsbad (Karlove Vary), Czechoslovakia.
    Buried in one cemetery in Karlsbad, then moved years later to
    to a different cemetery nearby, in Karlsbad.
    It has been reported that the body is now missing, but this has
    not been confirmed, the source is unreliable, and the report should
    not be taken seriously unless confirmed by a reliable source. 
 
 

 4. Maria Anna Walburga Ignatia (Mozart) zu Sonnenburg 
    (Mozart's sister).    Also spelled "von Sonnenburg". 
    St. Peter's Cemetery??
    Born July 30, 1751, Salzburg.
    Died October 29, 1829, Salzburg, age 79. 
 

 5. Lorenzo "Abbe" DaPonte - Mozart's librettist for 3 operas.
    Moved/Unknown.  
    Calvary Cemetery, Queens, New York (Long Island), USA.
    Location in cemetery unknown.
    Named "Emanuele Conigliano" at birth.
    Born March 10, 1749, near Venice, Italy.
    Died August 17, 1838, in New York City. 
    Age: Approx 89.  
 
    Originally he was buried in a Catholic cemetery on 11th Street
    between First Avenue and Avenue A in Manhattan, but they dug him up
    in 1909 and replanted him, paving over the old cemetery at the same
    time.
 
    Lorenzo DaPonte is now buried in Queens, NY (Long Island),
    specifically Calvary Catholic Cemetery, 4902 Laurel Hill Blvd.,
    Woodside, New York  11377. Phone: (718) 786-8000.
    A 4-foot stone in his memory was erected in 1987 by:
       * The Italian Heritage and Culture Committee of New York.
       * The Native New Yorkers Historical Association.
       * Councilman Morton Povman of Queens, New York.
       * Calvary Cemetery.
       * Woodlawn Cemetery.

    There are 4 Calvary cemeteries: First, Second, Third and Fourth
    Calvary. 
    DaPonte's stone (cenotaph) is located in section 4B in
    First Calvary (aka, "Cemetery 1") which is about 2 miles down the
    road from the main cemetery. 
    You will need a map to find both First Calvary and the stone. 
    Call the office first, then stop in to get detailed directions. 
    No one knows exactly where the grave is, but at least the stone 
    is in the same cemetery where he is buried. 
    A photo of his gravestone (cenotaph) can be found at: 
    www.findagrave.com (it really exists, even if it's hard to find).  
 
    To clarify: DaPonte's memorial stone is not easy to find but is 
    present, whereas the location of the grave in the cemetery is now 
    unknown, and has apparently been lost to posterity.
 
    Had it not burned to the ground in the 1800s, the Italian Opera
    House which daPonte founded in New York City in 1833, might still be
    playing Figaro, Don Giovanni, Cosi, and other Italian operas.
    DaPonte's final adventure was as a Professor of Italian at Columbia
    University, procured for him by his friend Clement Moore, who is
    perhaps best known for writing the poem "A Visit from St. Nicholas",
    better known as "The Night Before Christmas". 
 

 6. Mozart's sister-in-law - Josepha (Weber) Mayer.
    Location unknown.
    Died December 19, 1819, Vienna.
    Grave location unknown.
    Performed the Queen of the Night role in the Magic Flute over 
    200 times, and was performing it the night Mozart died in 1791. 
 
 
 7. Mozart's sister-in-law - Sophie (Weber) Haibl.
    Moved.
    Died in Salzburg.
    Originally buried in the St. Sebastian Cemetery in Salzburg.
    Later moved to the Communal Cemetery in Salzburg.
    Was present with Mozart and Constanze the night Mozart died, and
    wrote an account of it. 
 
 
 8. Aloysia (Weber) Lange - Mozart's sister-in-law and his first serious love.
    Moved.
    Died June 8, 1839, in Salzburg.
    Originally buried in the St. Sebastian Cemetery in Salzburg.
    Later moved to the Communal Cemetery in Salzburg.
    Joseph Lange, Aloysia's husband, painted Mozart's unfinished
    portrait in 1782, as well as a portrait of Constanze.
    Aloysia founded an institute in Switzerland for the study of the
    music of Mozart and Haydn. 
    The founding of the Institute demonstrates that perhaps she didn't
    disdain Mozart as much as she portrayed earlier in life (or, at all),
    when her nervous mother apparently forced Aloysia to reject Mozart
    for financial reasons. 
    (Someone should at least have TOLD him the reason for her rejection. 
    Good grief. He had no way of figuring out what was going on behind 
    the scenes, and was needlessly hurt.
    Nancy Storace might have been Mozart's replacement for Aloysia, but
    they were only close friends - not Lovers, as far as we know.) 
 
 
 9. Franz d'Yppold - a close friend and love of Mozart's sister.
    Moved/unknown.
    Recent visitors to St. Peter's Cemetery (2008) have been unable to 
    locate Franz' tombstone. 
    Therefore his location has been set to "unknown". 
    (However, the information on the apparently "missing" tombstone is
    unreliable.)  
 
    Franz was re-interred in St. Peter's Cemetery in Salzburg.
    Leopold kept Franz and Mozart's sister apart while Leo was still alive,
    although Franz and Leopold remained life-long friends.
    Franz was old - only 11 years younger than Leopold. 
 
    
 
10. Countess Anna Walsegg - Count Walsegg's wife (Anna Prenner).
    Moved.
    Died on Valentine's Day, February 14, 1791. Age 20. 
    It was a genuine, tragic story of true love interrupted by death. 
    Her death might have been caused by infection, caused by doctors
    with germ-laden hands, attending a miscarriage.  
    Anna was 16 when they were married, and they were married for 4 years. 
    Her husband (Count Walsegg) never remarried. 
    She was buried in a marble and granite tomb, which was located on 
    Count Walsegg's grounds at Stuppach, Austria, in a field next to his 
    castle. It was destroyed by French troops in the 1800s, during the 
    Napoleonic wars. Thanks for nothing, Napoleon. 
    Her husband had her re-buried in a niche in a church in Schottwein, 
    4 miles from Stuppach, where he is also interred.  
    Count von Walsegg was the mysterious commissioner of Mozart's Requiem
    which he had ordered for performing annually, on the anniversary of
    her death, in memory of Anna.
    Anna's death is the what prompted Mozart's Requiem to be written. 
    The "stranger in gray" who approached Mozart about the Requiem's 
    commission was Count Walsegg's lawyer, who had an office in Vienna, 
    and was a truly frightening man in appearance, per Walther Brauneis.
    Tall, thin, dressed in gray, and humorless.    
 
    Countess Anna Walsegg:
    Born "Maria Anna Theresa Prenner von Flammberg" (Anna Prenner) 
    in September 1770. 
    Source: Brendan Cormican.
 

11. Franz Xaver Süssmayr - Mozart's assistant in later life. 
    Unknown/Recycled. 
    St. Marx Cemetery, Vienna area. (St. Marx is a suburb of Vienna).  
    Pauper's grave. Location in cemetery unknown.
    Born 1766 in Schwanenstadt in upper Austria.
    Died September 17, 1803, of Tuberculosis.
    He did not die of Alcoholism. 
    10 years younger than Mozart. 
    He was the primary completer of Mozart's Requiem, but somewhat
    vague and confusing in his claims of the details. 
    Age when completing the Requiem: About 26 years old. 
    He also completed one of Mozart's horn concertos. 
    Later, was the Kapellmeister at the National Theater. 
    Successful and popular in the Viennese theater from 1794 to 1800,
    then ignored and unpopular.
11a. Süssmayr's Portrait: 
    The only known portrait of Sussmayr, which was on display at the 
    National Theater, was lost, then destroyed during WW2. 
 
 
12. Giacomo Casanova - Friend of da Ponte. Don Giovanni?? 
    Unknown. 
    Duchcov, Czechoslovakia. Grave location unknown.
    Casanova and Lorenzo da Ponte knew each other from Venice, and
    were friends for 14 years. 
    He probably met Mozart in Prague, but this is uncertain. 
    Casanova may have assisted da Ponte with the opera Don Giovanni. 
    He did write some libretto text for the opera, but it was apparently
    not used. 
    (I think it's VERY likely that he met Mozart. Casanova met and wanted
    to meet the rich and famous, the powerful, the intelligent, the 
    intriguing, etc.
    Casanova was a "Man For All Seasons" in the extreme, being interested 
    in almost everything, and would almost certainly have tried to meet
    Mozart in Prague in 1787, when Don Giovanni was being completed, 
    rehearsed, performed, and conducted by Mozart.
    And Casanova probably indirectly influenced the Libretto of Don Giovanni 
    by being a long-time friend of Da Ponte - the Librettist.
    Casanova's knowledge of women would have rubbed off on Da Ponte,
    and Da Ponte would have used that knowledge when writing the Libretto.) 
    
 .......................................................
 .......................................................
 
 
         Questionable and Doubtful Graves 

    Constanze Weber Mozart von Nissen - Wolfgang's wife and Nissen's wife. 
         1762-1842.
         St. Sebastian's Cemetery (Fake Plot) in Salzburg?? 
         Doubtful.  

         First name spelled "Constantia" on the fake headstone which
         is an incorrect spelling. 
         I don't know why it's spelled that way. 
         (I usually spell it "Constance", but technically, that's ALSO 
         incorrect. 
         The correct spelling of her name is "CONSTANZE".)

         The place and date of death are said to be listed incorrectly 
         on the headstone. Unknown if this is true (hard to read). 
 
         Photographic Note: 
         There is a group photo purporting to include an elderly
         Constance Mozart on the left side of the picture. 
         This is an impossibility based on her health, based on the 
         state of photography at the time (holding still for at least 
         2 minutes), and based on her recency of contact with the host. 
         It's someone else in a photo taken years later. 
         Technical analysis by Michael Lorenz.     
 
 
    Georg Nicolaus von Nissen. 
        Constanze's 2nd husband. 
        St. Sebastian's Cemetery (Fake Plot) in Salzburg?? 
        Doubtful.  
        Details on the headstone are said to be incorrect. 
        Unknown if this is true. 
 
 
    Euphrosina (Eva Rosina) Babara Altmann Pertl. 
        Mother of Anna Pertl Mozart (Mozart's Mother). 
        Wolfgang's maternal Grandmother.
        St. Sebastian's Cemetery (Fake Plot) in Salzburg?? 
        Doubtful.  
 
    Johanna (Jeanette) Berchthold von Sonnenburg.  
        Daughter of Mozart's sister (1 of 2 children).
        1789-1805, age 16.
        St. Sebastian's Cemetery (Fake Plot) in Salzburg?? 
        Doubtful.  
 
    Genovefa Weber.   
        Singer. The mother of Carl Maria von Weber.
        Related to Constanze.
        St. Sebastian's Cemetery (Fake Plot) in Salzburg?? 
        Doubtful.  
 
    Leopold Mozart.
        Mozart's father. 
        Musician and author of the book "The Art of the Violin". 
        d. 1787, age 68.
        Buried in St. Sebastian's Communal Crypt in Salzburg
        (in the Church - not in the churchyard cemetery). 
        We can be fairly sure that the Crypt Location is correct.
        Therefore, the Cemetery Tombstone in the "Mozart Family Grave" 
        is a Fake.  
 
 
   ......................................................    
 
 
 
 
    Saint Sebastian's Church and Cemetery
    in Salzburg, Austria. 
 
             "Cemetery City" 
 
   Many bodies are buried IN the Church, 
   UNDER the Church, 
   and outside in the "Outside Cemetery". 
 
 
       
              St. Sebastian's
                 Salzburg       
 
 
 
                
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
             
 
 
 
              
 
 
 
   
 
    The "Mozart Family Grave" in Salzburg. 
    The "Mozart Family Insult" in Salzburg.  
 
 
 
 
 
                 
      St. Sebastian's Ridiculous Goldmine 
 
               FAKE (or Mostly Fake) "Mozart Family Grave" at 
               St. Sebastian's Cemetery in Salzburg. 
               It's a Memorial to the Mozart Family. 
               An artificial site and a tourist attraction. 
               The Tombstones are Meaningless.  
               It's a "Mozart Tombstone Disneyland" created in 1901
               as a Tribute to the Mozart Family. 
 
         Tombstone Inscriptions (3 Tombstones):      
         1. Constantia von Nissen Witwe Mozart geborne Weber. (misspelled)  
         1. Georg Nicolaus von Nissen  (reverse side of Constance Tombstone).
         2. Jeannette Berchthold von Sonnenburg.  (misspelled) 
         2. Genovefa Weber. 
         3. Leopold Mozart. 
         3. Euphrosina Pertl.   
 
   "The Mozart Family Grave" at St. Sebastian's Cemetery in 
   Salzburg is an artificial site, created for nostalgic purposes 
   by  Johann Evangelist Engl in 1901, per Walther Brauneis and 
   Michael Lorenz. 
   It's a small plot of land with Fake Tombstones - not a Real
   Gravesite.     
 
 
          It's a MEMORIAL. 
          It's a TRIBUTE. 
          It's NOSTALGIC.
          It's ARTIFICIAL. 
          It's not REAL.      
          It's PHONY. 
          It's BIZARRE. 
          The Tombstones are FAKE. 
 
   It's a "Mozart Tombstone Disneyland".
 
   And it's a STRANGE Collection of People
   for a "Mozart Family Grave" with lots of
   people's Names MISSING!! 
 
                                         
   * Where's Wolfgang??                  
   * Where are the 2 Mozart Sons??       
   * Where's Wolfgang's Mother??         
   * Where are Wolfgang's Grandfathers?? 
   * Where's the Sister??                
   * Where's Aloysia Weber (First Love   
     and Wife's Sister)??                
   * Where are the other Weber Girls??   
   * Why does Wife Constance rate a HUGE 
     Tombstone, while Wolfgang gets nothing      
     at all??                                    
   * Why does the name of Wife Constance get     
     a Top Billing as "NISSEN" (Constance Nissen)
     but a Lower Billing as                      
     "The Widow of Mozart" like an After-thought??
     And only as a "Widow" - not a Wife??         
     Why is she Nissen's WIFE and Mozart's WIDOW?? 
     Queen von Nissen!!                            
     Why is Mozart an After-thought??              
     (She was Nissen's Widow, too.)                
 
 
   Genovefa Weber (nee Brenner) was a Mozart 
   relative thru marriage, Constance's Aunt, 
   a professional Singer, and the mother of 
   composer Carl Maria von Weber. 
   Very good. She earned her Family Tombstone. 
   But there she is in the Front Row next to 
   Nannerl's Daughter, Jeanette. 
   And Jeanette died at Age 16, which makes one
   wonder why Jeanette is listed.
 
   If we're going to have deceased children listed,
   why list only ONE deceased child of MANY?? 
   Where are Mozart's Pseudo Siblings (Early Deaths)??
   Where are Mozart's deceased children (Early and Normal Deaths)?? 
   They're not listed!!!! 
   Nannerl's Daughter but not Mozart's kids!!   
   This is not making any sense!! 
   This is RIDICULOUS!!   
   This is an INSULT to Mozart!!   
    
  The main reason the Mozart Name and Family
  are important is because of WOLFGANG. 
  Mostly Wolfgang. 
  (Wolfgang's LIFE - not his Death.)  
  And the Family Relatives should be related to 
  Wolfgang. 
 
 
  Thus: Wolfgang PLUS -- Fathers, Mothers, 
  Grandparents, Wives, Kids, Siblings, etc.  
  Yet his name is MISSING - except as the Dead
  Husband of Widow Constance!! 
  You know: That Dead Guy. Wolfgang or whatever... 
  Constance and that Dead Guy.    
  Queen Constance von Nissen and that Dead Guy.    
 
 
  This is like President Kennedy saying: "I'm
  the man who accompanied Jacqueline Kennedy 
  to Paris." after Jackie wowed the Parisians by
  speaking French. (He did say that because the
  French paid little attention to him. 
  Jackie spoke some French, and they went crazy
  with admiration!!
  "Jack-KEEE!! Jack-KEEE!!"  Weally. 
  All you have to do to impress the French is 
  to Look Good, and say some words in French.) 
 
 
  Wife: "Constantia von Nissen" as inscribed.
  You know: Queen Constance von Nissen.      
  The Noble woman with the Tombstone towering 
  over her Subjects (cough). 
  (The Wife of Georg Nikolaus von Nissen - her
  2nd husband, and his Widow).  
 
  Is she famous for being the Wife of the Danish
  Diplomat and Mozart Historian, or for being
  Mozart's Wife?? 
  Which one?? 
  Evidently famous for being Nissen's Wife!! 
  Certainly not for being Mozart's Widow!!    
 
  (Yes, I think Constance has sometimes been treated unfairly by 
   Historians, and I have no desire to do the same, or add a
   batch of ignorance to the pile - pro or con. 
   Perhaps she caused some of her own problems. I don't know. 
   But the Tombstone dedicated to Constance is ridiculous. 
   On the other hand, it's not her fault. Somebody else did it. 
   As someone pointed out, most of Mozart's best and most important
   work began around the time he began to date Constance in 1781. 
   Serenade for 13 Instruments, Idomeneo, The Abduction, Figaro, 
   Don Giovanni, Cosi, etc, etc. 
   Their marriage couldn't have been that bad!! 
   Why did she have such a positive effect on him??  I don't know.
   I have no idea. Perhaps she offered Serenity. No arguing. 
   Companionship. Freedom from his Father. Respect. Praise. 
   Feedback. Fun. Humor. Entertainment. Home Cooking. Perfume. 
   The continued Need to feel important, just as he had felt when
   touring with his Parents as a Child Prodigy. 
   Every child that's born thinks he's the Center of the Universe.
   With Mozart, that feeling probably continued for years since
   he was Europe's Wunderkind!! And Constance might have helped 
   to maintain that feeling in him - which he probably needed, 
   through no fault of his own. Unfortunate, but not his fault. 
   But he WAS the best - as a child AND as an Adult.  
   Whatever. 
 
   Leopold Note:  
   Leopold was a "wonderful" Father when Wolfgang was young, 
   and they were collecting gifts from Royalty. 
   But when Wolfgang became older, Leo acted like a SUPER JERK. 
   He showed his true colors, and showed that he was Conceited, 
   Rude, Pompous, Indifferent, Cruel, Lower Class, Greedy, 
   Disdainful, Unhelpful, Jealous, Mean-Spirited, Obsessive, 
   Possessive, Controlling Pond Scum with no Milk of Human Kindness 
   for Wolfgang, and even for his Wife. 
   Only for the daughter - and he controlled her, too!!
   And yet, Leo has a Tombstone in the Memorial Grave Site, but
   Wolfgang, Leo's main Meal Ticket and Earner of the Gifts, has None.
   Pretty Pathetic. And an Insult to Wolfgang. 
   The daughter helped to earn the gifts from Royalty when they went
   on tours as a family. But she was 5 years older than Wolfgang, 
   and not seen as quite the Wunderkind that Wolfgang was, when 
   Wolfgang was just a Little Kid.)
 
 
  Is this Family Grave some kind of JOKE??
  Is it some kind of INSULT??  
 
  Is this some kind of Back-Handed Slap at
  Wolfgang, posing as a Tribute to the Mozart
  Family, but not bothering to mention the most 
  famous and talented Mozart of all?? 
  As well as several others?? 
 
  Listing "The Skunk" Leopold, AKA "Super Jerk", 
  but not listing his wonderful Son, Wolfgang??  
 
 
  How is this a Memorial for the Mozart Family
  when several of the most important Mozart's 
  are MISSING TOMBSTONES?? 
  Such as "WOLFGANG MOZART"?? 
 
  Who designed this Travesty?? 
  Peter Scraper - the author of "Giggling Fool"
  Mozart Nonsense??    
 
 
  Be sure to visit our Gift Shop!! 
  Plastic Mozart Skulls are now on sale!!  
  Petrified Mozart Kugeln are now available at
  the Usual Prices!! 
 
  T-Shirts: "I SURVIVED CEMETERY CITY!!"
  are now on sale!! 
 
  T-Shirts: "I SURVIVED THE MOZART FAMILY GRAVE!!"
  are now on sale!! 
 
  T-Shirts: "I SURVIVED THE QUEEN CONSTANTIA 
  VON NISSEN, QUEEN OF AUSTRIA SUPER GRAVE!!"
  are now on sale!! 
 
  T-Shirts: "OFFFICIAL MOZZART GRAVE EXXPERT!!"
  are now on sale!! 
 
 
  Who's REALLY buried under those Tombstones??  
  What REALLY Happened on Mozart's Lear Jet??
  Get our revealing VIDEO and find out!! 
 
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  "Mozart Stuff" Discoveries!! 
     Shirt Collars!! 
     Thread!!  
     Shoe Horns!! 
     Shoe Laces!! 
     Old Penney Loafers!!  
     Ink Bottle Stirrers!! 
     Bird Cage Toys!! 
  Soon to be on display at a location near YOU!!
  Average Mozartians ONLY!! 
  (But you never know. They might shed some light
  on Mozart's Life - if Authentic...).   
     
   The So-Called "Mozart Family Grave" Location: 
   The Cemetery of St. Sebastian's Church in Salzburg, Austria. 
   Actual Cemetery Name:  Friedhof St. Sebastian. 
 
   It's a MEMORIAL. 
    It's just an imaginary concept, done to honor the Mozart's in a 
    quiet and peaceful small area, consisting of a few ornately 
    engraved tombstones, and plenty of flowers (and misspelled words 
    on the tombstones).  
 
    Engl really messed up by not including the Tombstones of some of 
    the most important Mozart's (such as Wolfgang!!). 
    What was Engl thinking?? 
 
    Many tourists are misled by it, thinking that it's a "real" 
    gravesite. It's NOT. 
    And it's not their fault. 
    No signs explain that it's just a MEMORIAL - not a Real Grave Site.   
 
    It's a VERY OLD CEMETERY, dating back to the 1500's. 
    And any bodies buried there must be from ancient burials of long-
    forgotten people, whose graves had no headstones, or they crumbled 
    over the years, and Engl just happened to place his fake tombstones 
    over their bodies by accident.   
 
    However, according to Wikipedia, Constance and Jeanette (daughter of
    Mozart's sister) are buried there, but none of the others listed on 
    the tombstones are buried there. See the Wikipedia entry for Leopold
    Mozart.  
    (We know that Leopold is buried in a communal crypt in the church). 
 
    What????? 
    The article did not explain how they know that Constance and Jeanette
    are buried there, making their assertion unproven and doubtful. 
    The Wikipedia claim seems preposterous. 
    Somehow, an artificial, nostalgic site turns into a REAL grave site??  
    Constance and Jeanette's bodies were magically transported to this 
    tiny plot of land??  
 
    How could Constance and Jeanette be buried there if the site was
    created in 1901??  
    Were their bodies moved to that location?? 
    Were those bodies already there??  
    What evidence do they have for that claim?? 
    DNA analysis?? Old documents?? 
 
    According to an NBC News report in 2008, there are some skeletons 
    in that little plot of land.  DNA from the thigh bones of 2 skeletons, 
    taken in 2004, which should have been from Mozart's maternal grandmother 
    (Rosina Pertl) and a niece (Jeanette Berchtold) (if it were a "real" 
    Mozart Family Grave), showed that they weren't related to each other.
 
   TO REPEAT: 
   THE "GRANDMOTHER" AND "NIECE" ARE NOT RELATED, 
   ALTHOUGH THEY SHOULD BE, PROVING THAT THE SITE 
   IS NOT A REAL GRAVESITE OF MOZART FAMILY MEMBERS
   WITH THE NAMES LISTED ON THE TOMBSTONES!! 
 
   The body found under one Tombstone was apparently
   not the Grandmother.    
   The body found under another Tombstone was apparently
   not the Niece. 
   Why?? Because they should show up as being RELATED 
   through DNA testing, but the tests showed that they
   were NOT related. 
   Who are they?? 
   No one knows. 
   Why are they there??
   Because they were buried there CENTURIES ago, and
   the Tombstones crumbled to pieces, or were never
   present in the first place. 
   The Graves either turned into Unmarked Graves, or
   were always Unmarked Graves.     
 
 
   OF COURSE THOSE UNKNOWN BODIES WEREN'T RELATED TO 
   EACH OTHER - EXCEPT MAYBE BY ACCIDENT!!!  
   OLD, FORGOTTEN BODIES WERE BURIED THERE CENTURIES
   AGO, AND NO ONE KNOWS WHO THEY WERE. 
   THEY'RE JUST A FLUKE!! 
   THEY MIGHT BE RANDOM BODIES!! 
   THEY'RE PROBABLY NOT RELATED TO EACH OTHER OR 
   TO MOZART!! 
   THE "MOZART FAMILY GRAVE" IS JUST A MEMORIAL!! 
   IT'S NOSTALGIA!!  
   IT'S A TRIBUTE!!  
   IT'S ARTIFICIAL!! 
   IT'S JUST A SMALL PLOT OF LAND!!   
   IT'S NOT A REAL CLUSTER OF GRAVES!! 
   IT WAS DONE TO HONOR THE "MOZART" FAMILY. 
   IT'S LIKE A HOLLYWOOD MOVIE SET OR A MOZART 
   TOMBSTONE DISNEYLAND - NOT REAL GRAVES.      
 
 
    The plot is a MEMORIAL, and the tombstones are cenotaphs (headstones 
    without bodies intentionally underneath).  
    It's surprising that ANYONE is buried under cenotaphic tombstones, but
    there are some old, forgotten bodies in that plot of land, from many 
    Centuries ago.
 
    Why did NBC News do such a STUPID thing???  
    Looking for Mozart's relatives in a FAKE gravesite??? 
    Were they trying to make Mozartians look stupid by implying,
    "See?? Mozart was a fake, and this gravesite is a fake!!" ??   
    Either NBC News is run by monumentally stupid people, or they had a
    Hidden Agenda. 
    I would vote for the Hidden Agenda.  
 
    Since St. Sebastian's Cemetery is a VERY OLD cemetery, any
    skeletons found in unmarked plots are also probably very old
    and unknown. Ancient, anonymous, forgotten people. 
    Doing DNA testing for "Mozart's relatives" on that plot would be 
    completely pointless. It would appear that they proved it: 
    It was completely pointless. But it does make the point that it's
    not "The Mozart Family Grave". It's just an artificial site 
    pretending to be a clustered set of graves of Mozart's relatives.   
 
    It also demonstrates the danger of creating Fantasy around Mozart.
    Over time, people forget that it was just fantasy, and people new
    to the subject don't realize that it's just fantasy. 
    I'm confident that Herr Engl meant well in establishing that site,
    but see what happened?? It lead to DNA testing, mystification,
    and a waste of time, energy, and money. 
    Expensive, confusing silliness. 
 
    ============================================================
    St. Sebastian's should put up a sign saying:
 
    "This is a Fake grave site created in 1901 by Johann 
    Evangelist Engl to honor a few members of the Mozart family, 
    long after they were dead and buried somewhere else. 
    It's a MEMORIAL - not a Real Gravesite. 
    This information has been publicly known for decades. 
 
    Oddly enough, there are some skeletons under the tombstones,
    but we don't know who's buried there.
 
    Evidently, the man who erected the fake tombstones did not 
    realize that there were ancient skeletons located underground. 
    DNA testing on any bodies buried there would be meaningless 
    and pointless. 
    Some might be related to each other, and some might not. 
 
    It's unlikely that any of them would be related to Mozart,
    although it's a remote possibility. Who knows??    
 
   Attention NBC News:  
   If you're looking for a "Wolfgang Mozart DNA Profile",
   why don't you use Leopold's body (in the Church Crypt)?? 
   You need to use a "Known Mozart" when you do DNA 
   testing to establish a Wolfgang Mozart Profile.   
 
    Attention NBC News: 
    Don't compare Bodies from a Fake Gravesite to a Fake Mozart Skull 
    with the wrong number of Teeth, "discovered" by a man who told Constance
    that he did not know where Mozart was buried, and who did not even work 
    there when Mozart was buried there. 
    Two WRONGS do not make a RIGHT. 
    Two FAKES do not make a REAL. 
    Please take your pill and call your Doctor in the morning. 
    Be sure to visit our Gift Shop while you're here.     
    Thank you, and have a nice day."
    ============================================================
 
 
    The "Constance and Jeanette" information makes sense ONLY if they
    were already buried there when Engl created his Tombstone site. 
    Were they??? 
    What happened to the original tombstones??
    Where is the documentation for their burials??  
 
    At a minimum, St. Sebastian's should hire someone to perform a scan
    of the plot with ground-penetrating radar to see how many bodies
    (skeletons) are buried there and exactly WHERE they're buried.     
    Are they located directly under the "tombstones"?? 
    Are they scattered about?? Do the "graves" of Constance and Jeanette
    contain 1 body each under their tombstones??  
    They could also do DNA analysis of *ALL* the skeletons to see who's
    related to who. With ancient bodies buried there, before the site was
    created, the results would be random and meaningless, and the results
    couldn't be used for any purpose.   
 
    SKULL PROJECT: 
    The DNA analysis in 2004 was done in connection with a project to
    determine if a skull, alleged to be that of Mozart's, is related to
    people he was genetically related to, and who should be genetically
    related to each other. Instead, it turned out that the 2 skeletons
    tested were NOT related to each other. Therefore, they are not who
    the tombstones claim them to be. 
    Why would anyone be surprised at that?? 
    The Tombstones are FAKE, and the Bodies were Unknown Strangers.  
 
    And we're LUCKY that they weren't related to 
   each other!! VERY LUCKY!! 
    If the 2 tested skeletons HAD been related to each other, apparently
    NBC News would have concluded that they were "Mozart Relatives", and
    based their "Mozart" DNA Profile on 2 Unknown Strangers!! 
    They could have been ANYBODY!! 
 
    Examples of Bodies:  
    "The 2 Church Custodian brothers who fell off the Roof in 1650". 
    NBC News thinks they're Jeanette and Genovefa, and establishes a DNA
    Profile for Wolfgang Mozart based on the 2 Custodian brothers. 
    In 2010, someone tests the DNA of a Car Thief, matches it to the 
    2 Church Custodian brothers who fell off the Roof in 1650, and 
    concludes that Mozart was related to a Car Thief. 
    Then NBC News creates a Week Long Television Series called:
        "DNA Proves that Mozart's Relatives Were Car Thieves". 
        "Using SCIENCE and the latest High-Tech advances in Genetics,
        Scientists at QWERTY College and Yale University (the home of
        the Skull and Bones Fraternity) have concluded that Mozart was
        unquestionably related to a Serial Car Thief and his brothers,
        who stole more than 250,000 Cars. 
        Raweeesh Washatwayashsoongeboblishrash stated that "Our team 
        of the World's Top Geneclastoidcriminologists validated what 
        many of us had long suspected. Namely, that Mozart was basically 
        just a Car Thief. 
        The Movie Amadeus proved that Mozart was a Giggling Fool. 
        We went one step further and proved that he was a Car Thief. 
        This Project, funded by the United Nations, has shown again
        how corrupt the West is, and how its most famous Icons were 
        either Idiots or Thieves, or highly corrupt. 
        Einstein, Mozart, Galileo, Isaac Newton, Eisenhower, Lindbergh, 
        Kennedy, Socrates, Plato, Shakespeare, Bach, IBM, NASA, etc, 
        were all Half-wits or Enemies of the People!! 
        Send more money to Pakistan!! 
        Send us more Computers and Airliners!!"   
 
        No, Raweeesh. Just enemies of YOU!! 
        You're a Million Miles from being a "Scientist"!! 
        Mozart was not a Car Thief or a Giggling Fool. 
        But YOU probably are!! 
        Get your hands out of the US Foreign Aid Buckets, and the UN 
        Free Money Buckets (funded by the US), return the Computers 
        we gave you, turn off the Light Bulbs we invented and produced, 
        and Stuff It!! 
        NBC "News": You too!! Stuff It!!  
 
    In any case, future "Mozart" DNA tests could have been erroneously 
    based on people completely unrelated to Mozart, even if the Unknown
    Strangers didn't have any children. 
    Then we might have found that Napoleon or Nancy Storace's child were
    supposedly "related" to Mozart, when they weren't related at all!!!   
    But Napoleon or Nancy Storace's child WERE related to the Unknown 
    Strangers in this imaginary Scenario. 
    Imaginary but POSSIBLE.  
    We got lucky and dodged a DNA Bullet!! 
    The 2 tested bodies weren't related, NBC News became confused and 
    dropped the issue. (Until they come up with some other Half-baked
    Notion, and don't do their Homework, just as they failed to do in
    the case of the "Mozart Family Grave".)         
 
    Earth to Mozart-Skull people: 
    The Mozart Family Grave site at St. Sebastian's is a FAKE, 
    and it's an INSULT to Mozart. 
    The Neanderthal Skull is a FAKE, as well (not Mozart and not 
    even close), and a Neanderthal INSULT to Mozart.  
    Why are you wasting your time testing DNA on UNKNOWN skeletons 
    to try to match to a Neanderthal Skull?? 
    Just for fun??  For some Hidden Agenda??
    Over...  
 
    Perhaps St. Sebastian's prefers to pretend that the site is genuine
    in order to make money off the tourists who visit it, turning part
    of the cemetery into a "Mozart Disneyland".  
 
    A small goldmine was apparently dropped into their laps, and they
    decided to capitalize on it. They probably don't care who's buried
    there. I think the Vatican has done the same thing with a few "Holy
    Relics".  
    They would need to explain that "Leopold is buried inside", but perhaps
    let it go at that. 
    (If Leopold isn't in the "Family Grave", how many others aren't there??
    Answer: Probably all of them.) 
 
    Why do ANY testing if Herr Engl created the plot as an artificial
    site?? Further testing at that site would probably not turn up 
    anything useful. 
 
    Next, we'll be sending explorations to the Edge of the Earth, and
    searching for Mozart's private jet. 
    Fake books will be written:
       "Suessmayr: Mozart's Jet Mechanic".     
       "I was Mozart's Private Flight Attendant". 
       "What REALLY Happened on Mozart's Lear Jet".
    The Crazies and Bobbly-Heads will be in Heaven. 
    They're just Fantasy Freaks who have latched onto Mozart 
    for reasons unknown. 
 
    
    ....................................................................
    Crypt Decree (General Information):
    As to a body being placed in a crypt, a decree issued by Emperor 
    Joseph II on September 6, 1787, stated that on no condition could 
    a body be buried in a crypt unless it had first been embalmed.
    ....................................................................
 
 
 
      Shocking Information on Leopold Mozart - the Fake Father
      ========================================================
 
     Johann Georg Leopold Mozart (The Skunk)
     Died 1787, age 68.
      Buried in St. Sebastian's communal crypt in Salzburg. 
      In the church - not in the churchyard cemetery.
      Why they allowed this, I don't know.
      He should be removed and tossed into an unmarked, mass grave,
      or in a shark-infested part of the Ocean. 
 
 
      Viewed Wolfgang as his "unpaid entertainment property", 
        IE, as an unpaid employee under contract.
 
 
      Stole most of the money and gifts earned by Wolfgang on their tours.
 
 
      While on tour, wrote "coded" letters complaining about his boss
        and others, which were easily intercepted and probably
        decoded by the Archbishop's staff (it took Georg von Nissen
        only 30 minutes to figure out the code, several decades
        later).
        Apparently, Leopold wasn't too bright or careful. 
 
 
      Had spies reporting back to him on Wolfgang's activities when 
        Wolfgang was on tour in Paris with his mother.
 
      Blamed Wolfgang for his mother's death in Paris which occurred 
        on a tour he had sent them on with low funds - a touring party
        of 2 instead of the usual 4. 
        She died July 3, 1778, Paris, age 57.
        She died of Typhus, the damp cold, not enough food, not enough 
        money, unable to speak the language (French), probable depression 
        due to staying in a low-rent hotel, and loneliness. Very sad. 
        Partially Wolfgang's fault for dallying in Munich with the Weber
        family, but mostly Leopold's for sending them there under those 
        harsh conditions - an irresponsible and cruel act, which he then 
        twisted into "Wolfgang's Fault" for his mother's death, unwilling 
        to accept his own culpability. 
        Not to mention the fact that he refused to let her come home early,
        despite her written pleas to Leopold, telling him that she was too
        old for all this traveling. She was now 56/57 - not the younger
        woman in her Forties, accompanied by Leo, Wolfgang, and Wolfgang's 
        sister.
        Much of the time in Paris, she was all alone. And in PAIN. 
        Tragic and unnecessary. Very sad.      
 
 
      Refused to provide Wolfgang with his christening records (the
        equivalent of a birth certificate) so that Wolfgang could be
        admitted to a musical society.
 
 
      Refused to approve of Wolfgang's marriage to Constanze, except
        under pressure, AFTER Wolfgang was already married.
        And he never approved of Constance.
 
 
      Refused to approve of Franz d'Yppold (the sister's friend).
        Franz was musical, but considered to be too poor.
        Mozart's sister was prevented from marrying him, and finally,
        even seeing him.
        Yet, Franz was her "true love". 
        No matter: Leo said No.     
 
 
      Demanded that Mozart's sister hand over her first born to him (the
        "famous" Leopold von Sonnenburg) so that he could raise another 
        musical prodigy. She did so, and left him with Leopold for 2 years. 
        Amazing but true.
        It would appear that Wolfgang's amazing talents sprang mostly
        from his genes - not from training by Leo, since no one has 
        ever heard of "Leopold von Sonnenburg", the composer and 
        performing prodigy, trained by Leopold Mozart. 
        Leo failed because he wasn't working with Wolfgang, the Genius.  
 
 
      Refused to babysit Wolfgang's child for a few months so that he
        and Constanze could explore job opportunities in England,
        even though Leo was well off and employed maids and nannies.
        Had Wolfgang and Constance moved to England, Wolfgang would
        probably not have caught the Strep infection ravaging Vienna
        in his last year, and might have lived to a ripe old age, 
        composing music all the while. 
        Thanks for NOTHING, you piece of Garbage.  
 
 
      Financially well off when he died, and had been for the
        previous 25 years or more.
 
 
      Reportedly cut Wolfgang almost entirely out of his will, willing 
        the bulk of it to Wolfgang's sister. 
 
      Alienated Mozart's sister against Wolfgang, when they had previously 
         been very close.  
 
      Very generous to Mozart's sister throughout her life, but as someone 
        pointed out, was unwilling to relinquish control over her. 
        This reinforces the point that he was also controlling with 
        Wolfgang throughout Wolfgang's life. 
        He seemed to think that his constant interference in both
        of their lives was essential to their well-being. 
        He did it ineptly. 
        (Wolfgang and his sister probably DID need parental advice, 
        as most offspring do, but Leo apparently tried to CONTROL both
        of them, rather than explaining why they should do "This"
        rather than "That", to help them mature naturally with the
        tools they needed to handle Life's problems and opportunities. 
        Mozart's sister probably matured primarily by way of her mother -
        not from Leo's Controlling attitude.)     
 
                               ......................
 
      What an immature, childish, self-centered, conceited, narcissistic, 
      egotistic, passive-aggressive, controlling, back-stabbing, thieving, 
      sneaky, jealous, spiteful, vengeful, mean-spirited, hateful, 
      despicable, rotten skunk in his later years. Leopold was despicable!! 
 
      Once Wolfgang was out of the house (or on his way) and no longer 
      making money for Leo, Leo showed his true colors (as he also did, 
      with Mozart's sister, controlling her relationships based on the 
      man's wealth).
      With such a fake father, no wonder Wolfgang had difficulty growing up 
      (although he succeeded).  
 
      Wolfgang's mother must have been more important to him than perhaps
      we realize, providing him with an anchor of genuine love and caring,
      as opposed to Leo's fake, hidden-agenda, dollar-driven "love". 
      Unless, of course, Mozart didn't notice many of these things when he 
      was young, and that's possible. 
      I'm sure he noticed in later life that his father was a skunk - not
      the "Papa" of his youth (although the aristocrats noticed that "Leo
      The Skunk" was something of a boor).  
      
      Note: Leopold's reputation as a parent of 2 adult children is 
      "controversial". Opinions vary as to whether he was a kind, nurturing,
      helpful father, sincerely trying to assist Wolfgang and his sister with
      some difficult problems (finding a permanent music position, helping
      with his sister's marriage, her household, the children, etc), or whether
      he was just a controlling, egotistical, pompous jerk, always interfering,
      never giving his kids credit for having any brains or maturity, and
      possibly interfering with Mozart's maturation, in some ways. 
      My opinion is that he both HELPED and HURT the adult sister, and 
      repeatedly HURT the adult Wolfgang. 
 
      He was EXTREMELY abusive to the adult Wolfgang, and should have been
      charged with theft and other offenses!!!!  
      He acted like a criminal or a sadistic prison guard!!
 
      * How can one POSSIBLY evaluate Leopold as "helpful" to the adult Wolfgang
      when he refused to provide Wolfgang with his christening records (the
      equivalent of a birth certificate) so that Wolfgang could be admitted 
      to a musical society?? 
      Impossible. Leopold was a JERK!!!    
 
 
      * How can one POSSIBLY evaluate Leopold as "helpful" to the adult Wolfgang
      when he refused to babysit Wolfgang's child for a few months, so that
      Wolfgang and Constance could explore job opportunities in England, even
      though he employed maids and nannies, and was financially well off??
      (The disease running through Vienna, but NOT through England, ended up
      killing Wolfgang - along with the incompetent, blood-draining Doctors. 
      Thus, Leopold is partially responsible for Wolfgang's death, had Wolfgang
      found work in England.)
      Impossible. Leopold was a JERK!!!   
 
 
      * How can one POSSIBLY evaluate Leopold as "helpful" to the adult Wolfgang
      when he cut Wolfgang almost entirely out of his will, willing the bulk
      of it to his sister - especially since a large part of his wealth was
      probably earned by Wolfgang when they were touring Europe?? 
      Impossible. Leopold was a JERK!!!   
 
 
      * How can one POSSIBLY evaluate Leopold as "helpful" to the adult Wolfgang
      when he refused to approve of Wolfgang's marriage to Constanze (except
      under pressure)??
      Impossible. Leopold was a JERK!!!   
 
 
      Hello?? Leo was Controversial?? 
      Where's the controversy?? Where's the helpfulness?? 
      What controversy??   
      He was just a mean-spirited, controlling, egotistical, pompous jerk,
      thief, sadist, and ass, and a piece of trash when Wolfgang was older, and 
      not making money for the Thief.   
 
      He did what he did to profit from his kids (when they were young), and 
      viewed himself in highly inflated terms throughout his entire life (a 
      pompous ass), always assuming that it was HIS help that allowed them to 
      flourish.
      He was PARTIALLY correct. But that's true of ANY parent. 
      Every good parent is partially responsible for the happiness, maturity,
      and success of their kids. 
 
      Leopold seemed to have a psychopathic need to be NEEDED that went far 
      beyond normal human need, perhaps to prove to himself and others just
      how important and critical his assistance was. That attitude became
      subconsciously absorbed by Wolfgang who must have felt, at times, that
      he needed his Father's help, that he would always receive his Father's
      help because his Father would step in and take over, and therefore,
      Wolfgang didn't need to be very responsible since his Father was always
      the responsible one who would keep him out of trouble. 
      Thus, perhaps we have a Wolfgang who was sometimes immature, pulled in
      2 different directions (maturity and dependence).
      But Wolfgang could be VERY mature, unbeknownst to his Father, as 
      illustrated by some of his music. 
 
      And Wolfgang was never the "Fool" of the movie Amadeus. That's just a 
      childish, insulting slam by someone messed up by a twisted childhood who 
      tried to clean off his baggage by insulting Wolfgang. Ignore that ridiculous
      depiction. It's Myth Mongering.  Mozart might have been silly sometimes
      (so what??), and he might have used some naughty words in some letters
      (so what?? -- they all did it back then), but he was also a Sublime Artist, 
      deeper and more mature than anyone I can think of.
      (The author of Amadeus can't even take credit for the beautiful music,
      the beautiful scenery, the excellent acting, the direction, and the 
      excellent camera work (cinematography), such as the racing carriage in
      the "Confutatis" scene, where the Carriage of Death races towards
      Mozart as he lies dying, frantically trying to finish his Requiem before
      the Grim Reaper arrives in a Black Funeral Carriage, with its dark horses
      grim and obedient, determined, indifferent, unspeaking, strong, and fast.  
      A frighteningly metaphorical scene. 
      Probably shot from a Helicopter.   
      The Director and Cinematographer came up with that idea - not the author.   
      Thank you, Director and Cinematographer!!
      You did some terrific work!!)   
    
  ......................................................................
 
            Mozart's 5 Siblings Who Died in Infancy
              (7 Births.  2 Survived.  5 Died.)
       (All listed were born and died before Wolfgang was born)
 
       BORN   NAME 
    1. 1748 - Johann Leopold Joachim    (1748-1749)
    2. 1749 - Maria Anna Cordula        (1749-1749)
    3. 1750 - Maria Anna Nepomucena Walpurgis  (1750-1750) 
    4. 1752 - Johann Karl Amadeus       (1752-1753)   <==== Note the Name 
    5. 1754 - Maria Crescentia Francisca de Paula  (1754-1754) 
 
    Note that one of Mozart's "siblings" who died in infancy was named  
    "AMADEUS" (Johann Karl Amadeus - born and died before Wolfgang was born). 
    Johann Karl Amadeus: Born Nov 1752. Died Feb 1753.                
    Age of Death: About 3 Months old.                                
    Died: About 3 Years before Wolfgang was born in January, 1756.   
  ......................................................................
 
        Wolfgang Mozart's and Constanze's 4 Children Who DIED in Infancy
                   (6 Births.  2 Survived.  4 Died.)  
 
       BORN   NAME                    BORN          DIED
    1. 1783 - Raimund Leopold        (27 Jun 1783 - 19 Aug 1783)
    2. 1786 - Johann Thomas Leopold  (18 Oct 1786 - 15 Nov 1786)  
    3. 1787 - Theresia Constanzia Adelheid Friedericke Maria Anna 
                                     (27 Dec 1787 - 29 Jun 1788) 
    4. 1789 - Anna Maria             (16 Nov 1789 - 16 Nov 1789).  
              Baptized as "Kristina" (Christian) by the midwife. 
              "Kristian" or "Kristina" is a pseudonym for a child who expires rapidly, 
              and is baptized by the midwife, rather than by a parish priest, before 
              the child has been given a name by the parents.   
              It means "Christian", and is roughly equivalent to today's "John Doe" 
              or "Jane Doe".      
              Anna Maria: Born and died 16 November 1789. 
              The child lived for only 1 hour. Gender mis-stated in death record, 
              (a male was implied) but was apparently a girl, based on church records. 
              The Vienna City Council made a mistake.     
              No death notice appeared in the Wiener Zeitung newspaper. 
              No baptismal record was made at any parish, and only the death was 
              recorded in official city records, in this case, in the records of the 
              Vienna City Council, which follows: 
 
 
             --------------------------------  

         1789                                                       

         Vienna City Council.                                       

         "Sir Wolfgang Mozart, imperial and royal capellmeister,    

         his child Kristian, baptized in emergency, at St. Nicholas 

         No. 245 at the Judenplatz [died] of spasms after his birth.

         Matthäus Rauscher [coroner]."                              

         --------------------------------  
 

 

         Apparently, a short funeral was held in the church ("Am Hof" -

         In the Court?? Somewhere in the Church??) the next day,

         on 17 Nov 1789, and the child's name was listed as "Anna"

         in St. Stephen's Church records.    

 

         The burial was also recorded, since it had to be paid for, and

         is in the church records of St. Stephens for 17 November 1789.

 

         References to the child as being "a boy named Kristian" are merely

         preliminary and provisional, due to a lack of information as to its

         name and gender, as we see in the coroner's report to the Vienna

         City Council. The child's true name was first listed by the church

         that performed the funeral.  

 

         Summary:

         The child was born on 16 November 1789 to Constance and Wolfgang.

         There was just 1 child involved: Kristina/Anna Maria,

         a girl who lived for 1 hour, baptized in emergency by the midwife

         at Mozart's house as "Kristina", and whose real name was Anna Maria -

         the name given by the parents, with a funeral held the next day,

         17 Nov 1789, at St. Stephens Cathedral.

         The name "Kristina" was a throw-away, "Jane Doe" name given by the

         midwife at the Emergency Baptism, and not used again.

         "A boy named Kristian" was just a provisional name and gender used

         by the City Council, not to be taken literally, and cleared up the

         next day with the funeral documentation by the parents - namely,

         the child was "A girl named Anna Maria".     

         The City Council made a mistake with the gender, or they weren't

         very concerned with getting it right since the child died almost

         immediately, or they simply didn't have the information and used

         the default name of "KRISTIAN" (a Boy).

 

         Normally, when I see the word "Mistake", Red Flags pop up.

         It usually means that someone is Lying, telling their version of

         the story, and explaining the difference with the word "Mistake".

         But they do happen occasionally, and this is one of those times.

         Somebody made a Mistake, and the Church Records containing the

         name "Anna Maria" for the child's name should be believed, in

         this case.

         The name makes sense (many, many women in Austria were named

         "Anna Maria", Mozart's Mother was named Anna Maria, etc), and

         I don't think the Parents or the Priest would make a False statement

         or an incorrect entry in a Funeral/Burial Ledger.

         Someone, somewhere made a Mistake, OR the City Council used the

         default name of "Kristian" due to a lack of information.

         The Church Records trump all other testimony.     

 

         * It was a GIRL named ANNA MARIA.      (BAPTISMAL/BURIAL NAME. CHURCH.).

         * Correct Temporary name: KRISTINA.    (BY THE MIDWIFE).

         * Incorrect Temporary name: KRISTIAN.  (BY THE CITY COUNCIL).   

 

         No death notice appeared in the Vienna newspaper "Wiener Zeitung".

         If an additional baptism was performed by the clergy, it wasn't

         recorded. 

 

         Source: Michael Lorenz. 

         See:  http://michaelorenz.blogspot.co.at/2013_03_01_archive.html

 
 ......................................................................
 
 The name "Amadeus"
 
    Mozart was Baptized: 
 
       Joannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus (Mozart).
 
 
    "Amadeus" is the Latinized version of the Greek "Theophilus" -- 
    Loved by God, or Lover of God, or a Friend of God. 
    It's a translation of an existing part of his baptismal name. 
    He was not named "Amadeus", and did not normally use the name
    Amadeus, except as a joke, usually preferring "Amade" or some variant
    of it, and often just "W A Mozart" in "serious" correspondence. 
    But what does the "A" represent? Amade? 
 
    I think Mozart thought of the name "Amadeus" as being too pompous,
    too official, too imposing, too official. Maybe even "silly". 
    He saw the pompousness of others from an early age, and didn't want
    to be like them. 
 
    There was also the issue of the name "Wolfgangus" in his baptismal 
    name - a Latinized form of "Wolfgang". It does sound a bit silly
    and pompous, so perhaps he didn't want to add to the pompousness 
    by using "Amadeus" (Wolfgangus Amadeus). 
    But as long as he used "Wolfgang" instead of "Wolfgangus", the
    pompousness of his name would be reduced, and using "Amadeus"
    might not be so objectionable.
 
    And I have seen documents from that period referring to Mozart as 
    "Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart", such as on a playbill for the opera 
    "Cosi fan tutti" from 1789. 
    Note that this was DURING Mozart's lifetime - not years later. 
 
    And "Amadeus" on a poster sounds better than "Theophilus", I think. 
    Imagine a playbill stating:
           Announcing the new opera "Cosi fan tutti"
                  by the famed composer 
               Wolfgang Theophilus Mozart 
 
    It doesn't work as well as "Amadeus". 
    Greek is for the weak and limp. 
    Latin is for the strong and sturdy. 
 
    (Note also, that Greek names for things shouldn't be held in high
    esteem, in my opinion. The Greeks renamed things rather than using
    the language of the foreigners, then others mysteriously adopted
    those names for no apparent reason. 
    For example, Pyramid is a Greek word (Pyramidos), but the Egyptians 
    called it "Per Neter" (The House of Nature). 
    Why should we honor Greek names and words, treating them as sacred 
    things, when the Greeks just made them up, and ignored the original 
    names??
    ("Pyramidos" means "Fire in the middle".
    But the Egyptians did NOT use that word.)
    How many Pyramids are located in Greece??
    How many Pyramids did the Greeks design?? 
    How many Pyramids did the Greeks build?? 
    The Greeks didn't design any pyramids.
    The Greeks didn't build any pyramids. 
    The Greeks didn't even acknowledge their original names!! 
    The ancient Egyptians had a low opinion of the Greeks, calling them
    "Ionian Dogs". They had the right, and they must have had a reason.
    So if Mozart wanted to change the Greek "Theophilus" to the Latin 
    "Amadeus", I certainly don't have any problem with it.)   
 
    The Register of Deaths at St. Stevens Cathedral in Vienna listed
    his name as "Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart" for the 5-Dec-1791 death of
    Mozart - the day he died, as opposed to many years later when
    romantics or others may have created a "fantasy name" out of the 
    original. You can't get much more "official" than that.    
 
    So the name "Amadeus" does have some historical basis, and can be 
    considered to be legitimate. 
    If some people from that era referred to him as "Amadeus", we can be 
    free to do the same.
 
    Additionally, one of Mozart's "siblings", who died in infancy 
    before Wolfgang was born, actually DID have the name "Amadeus"
    (Johann Karl Amadeus Mozart - born in 1752, 4 years before Wolfgang).
    (Born/died 1752-1753. He lived about 3 months.)  
    I don't know if Wolfgang avoided using the name "Amadeus" in his
    letters out of respect for his mother or the deceased child, or if
    he used it at times in his daily life after his mother died. 
    All speculation, of course, but an "Amadeus" did actually exist in
    the Leopold/Anna Maria Mozart family, if only briefly.  
    So, there is linguistic logic, a family name, and historical 
    precedence for being correct in using the name "Amadeus" as part of 
    Wolfgang's name, if one so chooses. I see its usage as optional, 
    and not wrong. 
 
    There is also the issue of "our right to choose" (Mozart's right). 
    If someone doesn't like their name, or prefers a different one,
    they have the right to use a different one. 
    It happens all the time. Mozart used dozens of different names in
    his letters, and often "W A Mozart" or "Wolfgang Amade Mozart" in
    serious correspondence.
    But note that he was not named "Amade" by his parents.  
    Mozart used that name because he wanted to, and didn't need anyone's
    permission to do so. 
    For some reason, he seemed to feel that his name was flexible and
    variable - perhaps a symbol of his independence, kicking his heels
    at the rigidity of society's rules and norms, perhaps as the result
    of his normal creativity, or both.   
 
    And at some point in his life, when he felt he wasn't getting enough
    respect, he may have decided to abandon his "pompousness" objections,
    and used "Amadeus", or not objected to its use by others. 
 
    If the advertisers (marketing departments) wanted to list his name as
    "Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart" in order to impress the public, why should 
    he object?? He knew he was the best, so listing his name with the
    impressive "Amadeus" might have finally been agreeable to him. 
    True, it wasn't part of his baptismal name, but his baptismal name
    was so long and unwieldy, and "Amadeus" so short, stylish, and 
    impressive, that he may have decided that it was a good name to use 
    after all - at least in his professional life. 
 
    "Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart" is essentially as correct as his other, 
    longer "official" name (baptismal name), and easier to pronounce.
 
    And let's not forget that when using the name "Wolfgang", we are
    modifying the baptismal version of "Wolfgangus". 
    So strict adherence to the baptismal name is not part of the 
    historical usage - by Wolfgang or anyone else.
    If one is accused of unjustified creativity in using the name "Amadeus"
    as part of Wolfgang's name, then by the same token, anyone using the
    name "Wolfgang" rather than "Wolfgangus" is also using name creativity,
    changing "Wolfgangus" to "Wolfgang". 
    What's sauce for the Goose is sauce for the Gander. 
 
    One could say that Mozart himself was one of the "name" culprits with
    the name "Wolfgang", and be correct.   
 
    Even contracting his baptismal name might result in "Joannes Mozart",
    or an Anglicized "John Mozart" - not "Wolfgang" or "Wolfgangus". 
    St. Michael's Church of Vienna, where a requiem mass was held on 
    December 10th, 1791, made a somewhat odd entry in their accounting 
    ledger for the event, listing the name as:
        "Herrn Wolfgangus Amadaus Mozart". (sic).
    So we have a mixture of Latin and German, using an original name 
    from the baptismal records (Wolfgangus), a translated name from the 
    baptismal record (Amadeus [misspelled] from Theophilus), and
    "Mozart". Quite a hybrid, but it does serve to legitimize "Amadeus",
    since someone at St. Michael's in Vienna, thought that was his name.   
 
    His father added "Sigismundus" years later, for Wolfgang's confirmation,
    (the name of one of his clerical bosses in Salzburg - Bishop Schrattenbach), 
    so that he could ingratiate himself with his employer. 
    So anti-Amadeus protesters should drop "Amadeus" and insert "Sigismundus" 
    into its proper location for accuracy and completeness, while retaining
    "Wolfgangus" etc, of course.
 
    "Amadeus" is simply Latin for "Theophilus" - his given name. 
    There is no law that states "Latin words must not be added to names." 
    And if there were such a law, it should be ignored by Mozartians. 
    But you can certainly call him: 
    "Herr Ritter Joannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Gottlieb 
    Sigismundus Mozart von Salzburg, Vienna, London, und Heaven"  if 
    you prefer. 
 
 
 
    Therefore, we have these "Amadeus" names (at a minimum): 
 
    1. Mozart's Death Registration - St. Stevens Cathedral in Vienna. 
       5 December 1791.
       Recorded by the Register of Deaths.
       Name: "Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart". 
 
    2. Mozart's Requiem Mass - St. Michael's Church of Vienna. 
       10 December 1791. 
       Accounting ledger for Mass expenses.  
       Name: "Herrn Wolfgangus Amadaus Mozart" (sic).
 
    3. Published music and opera playbills during Mozart's lifetime.  
       Name: "Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart". 
 
    4. Pseudo-brother. 
       1752-1753  (before Wolfgang was born).   
       Name: "Johann Karl Amadeus Mozart".
       Listed here because it gives the name "Amadeus" additional
       legitimacy.   
       Wolfgang's mother (and possibly his father) named one of her
       sons "Amadeus" 4 years before Wolfgang was born.  
 
    5. Wolfgang's "Theophilus" name was simply the Greek form of the
       Latin "Amadeus".           
 
    Past usage and current convenience persuade me to use "Wolfgang
    Amadeus Mozart" as his "standard" name. 
    I'm very comfortable with that, it is reasonable as far as I'm concerned,
    it is not "wrong" based on his baptismal name and past usage, and I use 
    it all the time, even if Mozart did not.  
    Mozart had his own reasons for not using that version of his name, and
    we can have our own, legitimate reasons for using it.  
 
 
    Bottom line: 
    In my opinion, "Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart" is a proper, correct, 
    valid, reasonable, logical, and convenient name to use. 
    I consider it to be his valid and "standard" name. 
 
 ......................................................................
 ......................................................................
 
 Mozart's Debts at his Death:
      *  Grand Total: 
         4,353 gulden. 
         Repaid by Constance over the next few years after Mozart died. 
 
         All debts repaid.
         Probably even Lichnowsky's, since the Court enforced repayment
         in 1791 due to Lichnowsky's lawsuit.  
         Comparison: Mozart's debts were more than twice the value of
         Leopold's estate at his death - and Leopold was well off. 
         Funds were raised by selling Mozart's music to publishers,
         holding concerts of Mozart's music, obtaining the 2nd half of
         the payment for the Requiem, travelling throughout Europe to
         promote Mozart's music, completing Nissen's biography of Mozart
         (he died before it was finished), obtaining a monthly income 
         from Austria by way of the Emperor, etc. 
 
 
 Individual debts included in the Grand Total, above: 
 
      *  To Michael Puchberg: 
         1,000 gulden.  
 
      *  To Prince Karl Lichnowsky: 
         1,435 gulden. 
         Incurred in 1789. Possibly a loan. Not a gambling debt. 
         Gambling was illegal, and the Courts would not enforce payments. 
         A reminder notice was issued on 14 November 1791 by officials, 
         regarding the attachment of Mozart's possessions and HALF of 
         his salary, payable to Lichnowsky.   
 
      *  To Unknown (possibly a bank): 
         1,000 gulden borrowed against the furniture in the home in 1790.   
 
 
      *  To Unknown:
         Additional debts to add up to the total.  
 
 ..................................................................................   
 
 Estate Value - Wolfgang Mozart:
      *  (Not ready yet, but well-documented in various books). 
 
 Estate Value - Constance:
      *  The value of Constance Mozart's estate at her death on
         6 March 1842: 
         27,191 gulden AFTER taxes. 
         She was quite wealthy!! 
         Mozart, Nissen, and the Emperor made her rich!!  
         She took in Nissen as a Room Renter, then married him, 
         then sold his book on Mozart after he died.  
   
 
 ......................................................................
 ......................................................................
 
 Notes on Accuracy - And Honesty 
 
 Agnes WHO??? 
 The Kangaroo???   
  Achtung!!  Achtung!!  Kangaroo in der Bücherei!! 
  Raus mit ihr!!  Mach schnell!!  
 
  As many of you know, there is much misinformation about Mozart - 
  in books, magazine articles, movies, and websites. 
 
 Books: 
    The information found in Maynard Solomon's book on Mozart
    should not be trusted, I've been told. 
 
    The information found in Agnes Selby's book on Constance is 
    often seriously flawed, imaginary, false, and even laughable. 
    It's Garbage. 
    Additionally, she is not a Mozart Fan, and not a Musician. 
    She cannot read Music. 
    She does not speak German.        
    She cannot read Modern German. 
    She cannot read "Old" German - the style of Letters and 
    Documents from the 1700's. 
 
    It's possible that she's just a KANGAROO!! 
    That would explain it!! 
    It's hard to read ANYTHING and listen to music if you're 
    hopping around all day!! 
 
    Note that ALL or ALMOST ALL of the Old Documents and Letters
    requiring Research into the Life of Constance Mozart and her
    Friends, Relatives, and Business Associates, would be written
    in German - possibly in multiple Dialects, and written in 
    the "Old German" style of writing - a style quite different
    from today's Modern German, and quite different from the 
    style of the 1800's and early 1900's, with some possibly in
    the "Lightning" Style, and also somewhat difficult to read.      
 
 These people appear to be hucksters, trying to make a quick buck, 
 and apparently, hold the reader in Utter Contempt, knowing that 
 the average reader has no way of verifying the "information" in 
 their books.  
 
 Dr. Michael Lorenz, musician and musicologist, who lives in Vienna, 
 has researched the claims of Agnes Selby in her book on Constance 
 and found them to be almost 100 percent Fiction. 
 He has spoken with many Librarians and Archivists in Europe and
 found that little or nothing in it is true.  
 The documents she claimed to have located DON'T EXIST, often the
 Libraries or Archives she supposedly visited DON'T EXIST, and not
 a single Librarian or Archivist had ever HEARD of Agnes Selby.   
 
 
 Her claims of documentation are Lies, and her book is just 
 worthless trash.  
 
 Much of it is fiction, and most of the rest is incorrect.
 Fiction is so much easier to write than non-fiction. You don't have to
 do any research, you don't need to be correct, and you don't need to
 tell the truth!! 
 You just "make stuff up" all day long. You don't check your facts...
 What are facts??? Is that a musical term?? You just check your book sales
 and rake in the cash, never informing the reader that you've never been
 to those places (they've never heard of you), and some of those places 
 you mentioned (such as libraries) don't even EXIST and never did.
 
 To repeat: They've NEVER HEARD of Agnes Selby at the Libraries and 
 Archives she claimed to have visited. 
 And some of those Libraries and Archives DON'T EVEN EXIST!! 
 
 According to Michael Lorenz, European librarians react this way regarding 
 Agnes Selby and her claimed (imaginary) Archives and Experts: 
 "Agnes WHO??? 
     We've never heard of her." 
 "Agnes WHO??? 
     We've never heard of her." 
 "Agnes WHO??? 
     We've never heard of her." 
 "Agnes WHO??? 
     We've never heard of her." 
 
 "The Special Collection of Mozart documents??  
    What collection??
    We don't have a Special Collection of Mozart documents." 
 
 "The National Viennese Archival Austrian Library of Berlin?? 
    What are you talking about?? 
    We've never heard of such a library."  
 
 "The Reinmeister Bibliotek of Hofburgerhaus am Essen?? 
    Is that a library somewhere?? 
    Not in THIS country.
    We've never heard of it."  
    Maybe it's a restaurant...
    Check the Yellow Pages under Restaurants. 
 
 "The Viennese National Library??
    What country is that in?? 
    Not Austria...
    Are you sure you have the correct name??"  
 
 "The Baden Police Records??
    What Baden Police Records???
    What Baden Police Station??    
    The Baden Police Station wasn't established until 1809.
    How could there be any records from 1791 if there was
    no Police Station??" 
    But I checked with some other contacts just to be sure,
    and they've never heard of any Baden Police Records
    documenting the comings and goings of people.
    And certainly not in 1791 when it didn't even exist.
    They don't do that, and never did.
    Was Suessmayr here in the 1780's or 1790's?? Who knows??  
    Nobody keeps a record of the comings and goings of people
    to our Fair City.  
    The reason those other researchers couldn't find the records
    is because they don't exist.
    You're on a Wild Goose Chase."   
 
 "Dr. Wilhelm von Strasse von Munchen von Alles von Peru??  
    Who???? Is this a joke?? 
    Maybe he's a character in a Comic Strip..." 
 
 Ridiculous. Her claims are LIES. 
 She lied to everybody. She lied to you, and she lied to me. 
 
 Also, as Michael Lorenz has pointed out, if you want to see the 
 "GOOD STUFF" at a European Archive, you need to speak the language
 fluently, and should be a native Austrian or German.  
 Americans, Australians, and others are unlikely to gain access to the
 best documents, often hidden away somewhere. 
 That's just the way it is. 
 
 With ASSISTANCE from some high-ranking Europeans, plus a PhD, or 
 working on your PhD, you might get to examine the Good Stuff, 
 if you also speak German fluently. 
 Without the proper Credentials, and some Assistance, you won't
 be allowed to see anything of importance.    
 
 And it might be very fair and reasonable, since they know you can't
 read the old German script, or understand some German words from
 200 years ago due to changes in language, etc. 
 (A "Casino" was not a Gambling Hall, and Gambling was illegal.)  
 They would need to read it to you, explain almost every word, and
 spend the rest of the day being in "Teacher" mode.  
 They probably have other things to do. 
 
 And the idea that Agnes Selby was allowed into the inner sanctums of
 these archives is just ludicrous. 
 Absolutely LUDICROUS!!  
 She's a rank AMATEUR, NON-Austrian, NON-German, NON-PhD, NON-musician,
 NON-musicologist, NON-Mozartian, NON-historian, NON-German-speaking 
 housewife Kangaroo from Australia who wouldn't be able to read the old 
 German script anyway, nor would she understand it even if she could 
 read it. 
 She wouldn't get to First Base at any archive. 
 They wouldn't allow her to get within 100 feet of an old document.
 
 These documents and other items are RARE, PRECIOUS, EXPENSIVE, 
 IMPORTANT, PROTECTED, SAFE-GUARDED, HIDDEN, OFTEN LOCKED UP,  
 and only QUALIFIED people are permitted to examine them. 
 You need to have good credentials, and you should be Austrian or
 German, speaking the language fluently, of course. 
 
 Even a qualified American PhD musicologist might not be able to
 gain access to the best items without Assistance from some important
 people. 
 
 Some Unknown "Housewife from Australia" who can't even find "MIDDLE-C" 
 on a piano keyboard, or find "AUSTRIA" on a map of Europe, or speak
 German, or read OLD GERMAN, or play a musical instrument, or identify
 any pieces by Mozart, can't wander into a European Archive and be 
 allowed to see or touch or examine an old, historical, precious, 
 priceless, protected document. 
 It's ABSURD. 
 It doesn't happen. They don't allow it.
 It's ridiculous and laughable.
 
 These Old Documents are PRICELESS!! 
 And she couldn't read them anyway!!    
 They wouldn't take that risk, and they wouldn't waste their time with
 such a totally unqualified Amateur or IMPOSTER. 
 
 (It would be similar to allowing a 3rd-Grader from China into an 
 active American MISSILE SITE, and letting him play with all the 
 Buttons and Levers. Or maybe go onboard a NUCLEAR SUBMARINE armed with 
 Missiles, and play "Submarine Captain" for a few months. 
    "What this button for??"  
    "NO!!  DON'T TOUCH IT!!"  
 It doesn't happen.)     
 
 They work ONLY with highly educated Professional Musicians and Historians -
 preferably Austrians and Germans who read and speak German, who can read
 and understand the old documents, written in Old German. 
 "OLD GERMAN" - not just "Modern German".
 German over 200 years old. 
 German script. It's unique. 
 Even *OLDER* than the example below.  
    "What this Old Book say??"                 
    "What this Old Parchment say??"            
    "What mean all these KV Number Thingies??" 
    "What mean 'Hochzeit'??"                   
    "What's a Bassinet Horn??"                 
    "NEIN!! LASS ES IN RUHE!! RAUS!!!!"        
 It doesn't happen.      
 
 
 Verstehen Sie??
 Vielleicht ist die Hausfrau eine Narr wer alter Deutsch
  (und Musik) kann nicht lesen oder sprechen...  Ja??  
   
 (My German is very rusty, and I'm not trained in Old German, either). 
 (The Flowery Old German is even HARDER to read than the Above.)  
 
 
 This is just a SMALL TASTE of what she would be up against.
 Old German is even HARDER to read, and HARDER to understand.
 
 How could she research a book on Constance Mozart when
 she doesn't speak German, couldn't possibly read or understand 
 the OLD GERMAN, and they would NEVER allow her to see or 
 examine old, PRICELESS documents, and they've never heard of
 her, and many of the Libraries and Archives don't even exist??
  
 
 Give me a break!! 
 She's just another FAKE, a FRAUD, and an IMPOSTER!! 
 
 Did she even visit Europe at all?? 
 Or did she just visit FLORIDA and start writing, 
 sitting in the shade with all the other Geriatrics?? 
 
 Does she have an axe to grind with Mozart??
 Evidently... She's apparently part of the Gang of Swamp
 Creatures out to attack a Western Icon and cause Chaos 
 and Trouble.  
 
 When I was on the Mozart Message Boards, years ago, I didn't
 realize what the true situation was, at first. 
 Some people realized that she was a Fake, but most didn't. 
 Her wild claims led to endless arguments and bitterness - 
 which is possibly what she wanted.
 Insults were hurled back and forth, making the truthful and
 knowledgeable people look bad, some of the time. 
 Michael Lorenz has now PROVEN that she was a Fake, if it hadn't
 already been proven.
 The Librarians have never heard of her ("Agnes WHO???"), the
 Documents DON'T EXIST, and some of those 
 Archives she supposedly 
 visited DON'T EVEN EXIST. 
 She LIED!!  
 
 
 At the Archives - 
    She DIDN'T EXIST (they've never heard of her). 
    The Documents DON'T EXIST. 
    Some of the Archives DON'T EXIST.       
 
 
 Does the TRUTH Exist in her stupid book??
 How could it?? 
 
 
 
 Who was PAYING her to PLUG her 
 stupid "Book" in every Post 
 she made??? 
 
 
 Who was PAYING her to LIE 
 and DISRUPT??? 
 
 
 Who was PAYING her to be 
 OBNOXIOUS??? 
 
 
 Who was PAYING her to PICK 
 FIGHTS??? 
 
 
 Who was PAYING her to TRASH
 Mozart??? 
 
 
 Who was PAYING her to write 
 a piece of GARBAGE???  
 
 How much was she being Paid to LIE and DISRUPT??? 
 
 She was just trying to sell her stupid book - the book of Lies
 and Nonsense and Trash, and using the Mozart Message Boards as
 a platform to advertise it, AND ruining the Mozart experience for 
 all who read the messages - causing MANY people to leave.
 Especially NEW People.
 
 "Agnes WHO??? The Kangaroo???" should have been banned long 
 before they finally did it. 
 It's a despicable situation, and she has my utter contempt.  
 
 (Why didn't the Message Board Management BAN her as soon as
 she started being a Troublemaker - making wild claims about
 Constance, always plugging her stupid book with every Post, 
 etc??
 Were they part of the Swamp?? 
 The Message Board Managers often acted like MORONS, NITWITS, 
 WEAKLINGS, INCOMPETENTS, EXTREME LEFTISTS, "EVERYBODY HAS A
 RIGHT TO BE HERE", "CRITICISM WILL NOT BE TOLERATED", 
 "INTOLERANCE WILL NOT BE TOLERATED" (???), "PERSONAL ATTACKS
 WILL GET YOU BANNED", "EVERYBODY IS EQUAL", "ALL OPINIONS ARE
 VALID", "ALL OPINIONS ARE EQUAL", "AGNES CAN SAY WHATEVER SHE
 WANTS, INCLUDING PERSONAL ATTACKS", "DOUBT IS FORBIDDEN", 
 "EVIDENCE IS A DIRTY WORD", "KNOWLEDGE IS A TERRIBLE THING", 
 "MENTIONING SOMETHING FOR SALE IS A CRIME", "FACTS ARE FLEXIBLE",
 "FANTASY IS BETTER", "2 WARNINGS: BANNED", "1 WARNING: BANNED", 
 "350 WARNINGS: BANNED", "WARNINGS ARE FOR NAZI'S", 
 "MENTIONING SHOE LACES: BANNED", "POINTLESS RUDENESS IS OK", 
 "WE STRAIN AT GNATS AND SWALLOW CAMELS", "DISINFORMATION IS 
 PERFECTLY OK", NOBODY KNOWS WHAT'S TRUE", "EVERYTHING IS AN
 OPINION", etc.      
 They finally Banned the Kangaroo, several YEARS too late. 
 Both Boards folded, and the Kangaroo was the main reason!! 
 The Second Board was bigger and better than the first, but 
 with ALL Weaklings for Managers, and a great Library which was
 lost when a Hacker brought the Site down. The "Managers" 
 (cough) had neglected to Backup the Site, and apparently didn't
 even ATTEMPT to Fix the Hacker Problem!! 
 It makes you wonder what their Agenda was. 
 I had saved a few of their Library Files, and uploaded them to
 this Website.)  
 
 From "Amadeus" to "Agnes WHO???" to the "Mozart Family Grave",
 Mozart Fakery abounds!! 
 
 Honesty and Truthful Information are sometimes MISSING.
 Why???      
 
 Really OLD German is very difficult to read (harder than the above), and
 often nearly impossible to understand, with a vocabulary no longer in use.
 (What was a Casino?? Who was Kristian Mozart?? Are you sure??.
 Dr. Michael Lorenz of Vienna has clarified these issues for us, and it required
 multiple skills, effort, access, credentials, and broad knowledge to do so.)  
 
 And, as I recall, the language wasn't even Standardized in the 1700's. 
 Every region had its own expressions and terminology, and the language
 was finally Standardized sometime in the 1800's, making a researcher's
 task even more difficult.
 
 (Some of the "Language Issue" also occurs in Japan, where you have to speak 
 Japanese to be admitted. If you speak only English, you can't come in. 
 "Are you speaking Japanese tonight??  Sorry. Japanese only.") 
 
 But not to worry: She didn't visit those archives anyway.
 They've never heard of "Agnes WHO???". 
 
 
 On forums, whenever she would make a ridiculous or slanderous statement,
 supposedly quoting someone else in their book, and someone would demand 
 to know the page number in that book, she would *ALWAYS* claim that she
 couldn't recall the page, or that she had lent her book (her ONLY copy)
 to her daughter and can't access it (her daughter lives under the ice
 Sheet at the North Pole, apparently.)   
 
 In other words, she's a complete fraud, never providing evidence for
 ***ANY*** of her wild and crazy claims, simply LYING to the public on
 a daily basis. 
 All of these important books that she had supposedly used as source
 material for her "book" had vanished into thin air, or her memory had
 mysteriously betrayed her, or she "accidentally" misspelled an important
 name, or she can't find her claimed "Notes", or she's WAITING for a 
 response from someone (still waiting after 6 months), or the DOG ate
 her homework, or she accidentally threw her "Notes" into the washing
 machine, or she left her "Notes" in her car, or she can't FIND an 
 address, or she LOST the phone number, or she left the book at the
 DENTIST'S OFFICE, or she can't remember who she LENT it to, or it must
 be MISFILED, or she accidentally left it in PRAGUE, or the GERMAN
 SECRET POLICE confiscated it, or her expert is travelling on a world
 CRUISE and won't return for 5 years, or the NAZI MUSEUM destroyed it,
 or she SPILLED a bottle of ink on it and ruined it, or she left it
 on a BUS in Warsaw, or she left it in a TAXI in Copenhagen, or it
 got RAINED ON in Cairo, or the VATICAN mistakenly took it from her
 on her way out, or the Abby was CLOSED for the Winter when she went
 back, etc, etc, etc, etc, etc, etc, etc, etc, etc, etc.     
 Nothing, nothing, nothing, nothing, nothing, nothing, nothing....
 Excuses, excuses, excuses, excuses, excuses, excuses, excuses... 
 Lies, Lies, Lies, Lies, Lies, Lies, Lies, Lies, Lies, Lies, Lies....
 She's a Fraud, a Fraud, a Fraud, a Fraud, a Fraud, a Fraud, a Fraud....
 
 She NEVER provided any evidence for her ridiculous claims. 
 Don't waste your time or your money. 
 
 Her book doesn't even talk about Mozart, directly. 
 It's not a "Mozart" book.
 BUT she manages to trash him, from time to time. 
 It's a book of nonsense, fiction, imaginary stuff, stupid stuff,
 lies, slander, garbage, etc, by a NON-musician, a NON-Mozartian,
 a NON-composer, a NON-listener, and an UN-informed Carbon Unit
 using a Dart Board to write a "book".  
 
 (I have read many excerpts from her book, and many comments of hers
 on Mozart message boards, but have not read her book.
 Based on the excerpts and her comments, I do not intend to read
 the book. In my opinion, it's pure garbage. Why bother??) 
 
 On the Mozart message boards, she acted like a Whale in a Bathtub,
 flopping around, slandering people, stabbing people with words, 
 making accusations, making denials, making ridiculous claims, 
 ALWAYS plugging her worthless book with every post, starting 
 arguments, ruining the Mozart experience for some, and making a 
 PEST of herself at every opportunity. 
 Every single post she made was a PLUG for her book!! 
 
 She was OBNOXIOUS!! 
 She ATTACKED Members of the Message Board!! 
 She attacked MOZART!! 
 She was a WRECKING BALL!! 
 She acted like a CRIMINAL!! 
 She acted like an IDIOT!! 
 She could never "find" her reference book (the Poor Baby)!! 
 (It was always MISSING).  
 (Some have theorized that her Brain was MISSING, too.) 
 
 She used the message boards as a platform to sell her worthless
 book, and had nothing of value to contribute to the group. 
 The Mozart message boards were just BILLBOARDS to advertise her
 worthless book, as far as she was concerned. 
 Every post she made was a plug for her book, and every post she
 made was ridiculous nonsense. 
 
 She should have been BANNED right away!! 
 Why did the message board owners let her stay so long???? 
 She was eventually Banned, but it took FAR too long. 
 How many examples do you need to see that she's a fraud??? 
 Hundreds???  
 All they needed was ONE. 
 It was OBVIOUS after a while.
 She's a FRAUD!!!!  
 Good grief. 
 
 Was she part of the "Amadeus - Mozart was a Fool" group??
 Or the "Let's minimize Mozart and talk about someone else" group??
 IE, "Let's trash a Western Icon" group?? 
 Probably....  
 She might have had TWO Hidden Agendas...  
 
 From "Myth Mongering" (Amadeus) to "Cultural Vandalism" (We didn't
 go to the Moon), to "Only crazy people are opposed to Fluoridation"
 (Dr. Strangelove) they're out there, being wrecking balls of 
 Western Icons, health, pride, and everything Good and Normal. 
 (Mozart was not a part-time Fool, we went to the Moon 10 times and
 Landed 6 times, and Fluoridation is BAD for your health - yes really,
 I'm absolutely positive, and it even helps to make people fat and 
 sluggish and passive with brittle bones, yes really, I'm absolutely 
 positive. Some communities have dumped Water Fluoridation or rejected
 it from the beginning, but many have not because they've been conned
 into accepting it by the best Liars money can buy.
 A Fluoride treatment on your teeth is fine.
 Fluoride in the water is NOT fine, and doesn't help your teeth.
 Drinking lots of Fluoridated water will tend to make you fat, 
 sluggish, passive, and make your bones brittle.
 General Ripper of "Dr. Strangelove" was actually right - not crazy.
 But they depicted him as being crazy.
 He's the one who was always complaining about the Commie Plot to
 sap and impurify our precious bodily fluids, and adding Fluoride
 to the water, to milk, to Ice Cream..... 
 Thus, "Only crazy people are opposed to Water Fluoridation."
 But it was a Lie. 
 He was actually telling the truth - but no one believed him. 
 After all, Ripper was crazy - right??  No he was not. 
 He just SOUNDED crazy. 
 Only SMART and SANE and INFORMED people are opposed to Water Fluoridation.
 Most of Europe has REJECTED water Fluoridation. 
 Everyone else is led by the nose to poor health, lower IQ's, etc.
 **IF** they drink a lot of Fluoridated water, or anything Fluoridated.
 Including water in Coffee, water in Tea, water in Soda, water in Lemonade,
 Ice Cubes, water added to food products, etc, etc.
 You don't believe me?? Wake up. It's true.
 For example, the Hip Fracture rate in the USA is now the Highest in
 the World!! We're now heavier and we have brittle bones.
 If you slip and fall, and your community Fluoridates the water, there's
 a good chance that you'll break your hip, costing you thousands of
 dollars in medical care, and putting you out of commission for months.
 The prevention is simple: Don't Fluoridate the water.
 At least, it's not as likely that you'll break your hip.
 Fluoride is a poison and is even used in Rat Poison.
 The Bad Guys know this, and are trying to destroy the West, and they're
 using every method they can think of.)  
 
 So, who knows?? "Agnes WHO???'s" "book" might be part of the criminal 
 movement to destroy the West in dozens of ways, including the minimizing
 and trashing of Western Icons such as Mozart in order to cause despair, 
 depression, confusion, a loss of trust, a loss of self-confidence, 
 a loss of respect for our heroes, aimlessness, emptiness, etc.  
 Certainly POSSIBLE. 
 
 Remember, they made an entire MOVIE to do it (Amadeus) by depicting
 Mozart as a sometimes nasty, Giggling Fool. 
 And they LOADED it with things people like - beautiful scenery, 
 beautiful costumes, beautiful music, good acting, etc. 
 People wanted to SEE this movie. 
 So they got all kinds of good things PLUS Mozart, the Giggling 
 Fool. 
 
 The "Draw" was all the Good Things in the Movie. 
 The "Punch in the Gut" was the Fake depiction of Mozart's Nastiness,
 and his Fake behavior of "The Giggling Fool" - with a High-Pitched  
 Giggle, no less - like a Silly Girl of around 7 Years Old, as if 
 Mozart was some kind of Physical Transgender - part Female. 
 Give me a BREAK!! 
 NOBODY who knew Mozart or met Mozart reported that he had a 
 High-Pitched Giggle!!  
 
 Commissioning someone to write a BOOK to Trash Mozart would be easier 
 then making a movie!! 
 Her "book" might be part of that anti-Western Wrecking Ball, filled
 with Lies, and shifting the focus away from Mozart to his wife.
 I wouldn't be surprised.
 That's the kind of things these diabolical criminals do, with "Agnes
 WHO???" probably not realizing how she was used to help destroy the
 West, doing it in her "book" and on the Mozart message boards. 
 It fits the pattern, and it MIGHT be true. 
 (There's nothing wrong with writing about Constance Mozart, but does
 she deserve an entire Book??? Why??? 
 If so, make it TRUE!! Don't write a book filled with Fantasy and
 factual errors. It doesn't make much sense.
 Was the Kangaroo's book written for some hidden purpose??
 Probably!!) 
 
 
 
 THIS WEBSITE:
 If you find mistakes on **THIS** website, please let me know, and I will 
 correct them. I have tried my best to make the information 100% accurate,
 but some mistakes might have slipped through. 
 Some information on graves turned out to be unreliable or untrue, and
 needed to be corrected. I hope I've made all the corrections. 
 A photograph or a copy of a document would be the best kind of correction. 
 Thank you.  
 ......................................................................
 Acknowledgements:
 
 All individuals are Mozart researchers, historians, and/or authors,
 and made significant contributions, directly or indirectly, to this
 paper. 
 
 If I failed to acknowledge you here, it was not intentional.
 Please let me know, and I will do so.  
 
 Many of the conclusions and all the errors are mine. 
 
 
   Open Mozart Net (Mozart Discussion Board) - *main source*  (2002)
        http://www.openmozart.net/index.jsp  (now defunct) 
        Dr. Neal Zaslaw - "The Compleat Mozart"  
        Daniel Leeson 
        Brendan Cormican 
        Emmanuelle Sayaq-Pesque
        Gary Smith
        Steve Ralsten
        Dennis
        Margaret Mikulska
        Joe Dorazio 
        Ron Hunter 
   Walther Brauneis 
   Dr. Michael Lorenz 
   Bruce Cooper Clark - The Prince Lichnowsky Newsletters  
   The Mozart Society of America (MSA)
   Alfred Einstein - "Mozart - His Character and His Work"
   Robbins Landon  - "Mozart's Last Year" 
   Erich Valentin  - "Mozart and His World", 1959
   Record/CD liner notes and booklets
   http://www.findagrave.com
   Miscellaneous others
 
 
     Brendan Cormican's site - http://www.angelfire.com/bc2/mozart/index.html
     For excellent additional funeral information in greater depth, and 
     photographs related to Mozart's funeral, etc. 
 
     Photos of graves:  http://www.findagrave.com
 
 

     Website of Dr. Michael Lorenz - Musician, Musicologist, and Mozart expert: 

     http://michaelorenz.blogspot.co.at/

 
     For day-of-week determinations, see the calendar website:
     http://personal.ecu.edu/mccartyr/MyCalendar.html
 
     For date calculations, see the website:
     http://cgi.cs.duke.edu/~des/datecalc/datecalc.cgi
 
 
                                       
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