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FAQ - Frequently Asked Questions and other Aspects 


                              Last updated May 2017



    History of the MTM.



    The MTM and van Gogh Paintings 

    Song/Scena "Als Luise die Briefe"

    Song "Der Zauberer" 

    MIDI Files, MP3's, Soloists, etc

    Mozart's Geburtshaus

    Autograph Copies

    The movie "Amadeus" and its Myth-Mongering,

       portraying Mozart as a Sublime Artist and a Fool. 

       The Amadeus review is about halfway down the page.



Q - Questions.

1. What is your background?

2. Why did you write this paper?

3. When did you become aware of Mozart's heavy use of this phrase?

4. What is your opinion of this phrase?

5. Was Mozart aware that he used this phrase so often?

6. Why did Mozart use this phrase so often?

7. How many examples exist of Mozart's use of this phrase?

8. When did Mozart use the Trademark Phrase for the LAST time (the Requiem)? 

     9. How many pieces by Mozart have you heard?

10. How many pieces by other composers have you heard?

11. How can I locate more examples in Mozart’s music?

12. How can one determine if it exists in the works of other composers?

13. Did other composers use their own "trademark phrase"?

14. How does this "trademark phrase" information enhance my knowledge of music

      in general or Mozart in particular?

15. Did Mozart use any other trademark phrases? (K.608 - musical metaphor).






                                               Lacrimosa Autograph Score.  Page 2. 

                                      Bars 6-8.  "Ex favilla judicandus homo reus...."

                                        Possibly the last notes Mozart ever wrote. 

                                   (Preceding:  "Lacrimosa dies illa, qua resurget".) 

                               Additional notes added by someone else ("Huic ergo...").  


               See the discussion of this Autograph Score Page further down on this Web Page.






Brief History Of The MTM:


I came from a very Musical Family, but oddly enough, music was rarely discussed -

if ever. Various problems might be discussed, hiring a Piano Tuner might be discussed,

a disappointing Performance might be discussed, etc, but the Music itself was rarely

or never discussed, that I recall.


I took Piano Lessons beginning around Age 6, or so, gave a few required concerts 

with all the other Piano Students, and quit after 8th Grade.

I attended an occasional Concert, and listened to some of the Classical Records my

parents had bought - Mozart "The Jupiter Symphony (41)", Symphonies 38, 39, and 40,

Eine Kleine Nachtmusik, the Requiem (in an excellent recording, done by the Robert

Shaw Chorale - the best of the best), and non-Mozart (Hindemith, Beethoven,

Bach's Brandenburg Concertos, Bach's Magnificat, Ravel's Daphnis et Chloe, etc). 


In late Grade School and early High School, Rock n' Roll was just getting started,

and I listened to those songs on the Radio like everyone else, and bought a few

45 RPM records.

I was enchanted by the music of a 1958 Movie called "Black Orpheus" with its

constant background throb of Caribbean Calypso played during "Carnivale" in Rio.

I felt that most Foreign Films were stupid and boring, but not THAT one!!

I was never a fan of Jazz, or Polka, or the old, original "Country Music" (which

was just AWFUL!!!!).

But they sweetened and much improved Country Music, at some point, and some of

it wasn't too bad.

(The good thing about "Improved" Country Music, besides Dolly Parton, was some

of the Song Titles - Real and Fake, such as:

"If I'd Shot Her When I Wanted To, I'd Be Out By Now!".

I think that one was a Fake Title.)  

But the "Alternative" Music never pushed away "Classical" Music for me.

I sang in the College Choirs (not High School), and performed Bach's Mass in

B Minor, Carmina Burana, Bach's Magnificat, Brahm's Requiem, and many



I should have taken some Music History and Music Theory Courses, but I didn't,

for some reason. Those subjects are more interesting to me now, but at the time,

I had no interest in them.

Oddly enough, it turns out that "Music Theory" has been a real Mess, with no

one agreeing on much of anything, such as "Chord Names".

That was partly why I originally wrote the MTM Paper using a NUMERIC Definition,

and dispensed with Chord Names.

But the Numeric Definition is too difficult to understand, leaving Readers bewildered,

so I dropped it from the MTM Paper, and reverted to "Standard Chord Names",

or "Typical Chord Names" in the Definition Section.

The MTM Definition is now much easier to understand.


I first first noticed the MTM in the early 1960's - approximately 1962. 

Upon hearing it so often in Mozart's music, I thought that all composers must have

a "Trademark Phrase", although I hadn't noticed one in the music of other


It struck me as being a musical signature or identifier embedded in the music. 

And if Mozart did it, they all probably did it. Apparently not.

I gave it the names of "Mozart's Trademark", "Mozart's Trademark Phrase", and

"Mozart's Musical Trademark" in approximately 1962.  


First MTM paper written: 1990's. Handwritten.

Motivation for paper: Much to my surprise, apparently, no one was aware of the MTM.

                     I thought the MTM was Obvious and that everyone knew it existed,

                     but I didn't encounter ANYONE who had heard of it - including Experts.

                     Naturally, I didn't call it "The MTM" when discussing it, but referred

                     to it as Mozart's Musical Trademark, or something similar.

                     No one knew what I was talking about.

Next papers: Text on a Floppy Disk. 

                    Text and graphics on a CD ROM.

                    Text and graphics and MIDI Audio Files on a CD ROM.

First placed on the Web:  2001.


For easier understanding, the "Numeric" definition of the MTM was dropped,

at some point, and a conventional-nomenclature definition adopted (Italian 6th, etc).

The "Numeric" definition turned out to be difficult for Readers to understand,

and very foreign to "Musical Thinking", and of course, "Musical Terminology".   



2002: Additional topics added to the website beginning in 2002 and continuing:

Additional MTM Topics for the Mozart website: 

    *   Comments and Discussion

    *   FAQ   (The MTM and other issues) 

    *   MTM Short Citations  (a partial listing of pieces or movements with the MTM)  


    Other Mozart Topics Added: 

    *   K.355 (piano minuet) played with 4 different instruments

    *   Meistermusik and the Masonic Funeral Music

    *   An Improved Sanctus for the Requiem

    *   Mozart Myths:  K.361 and Mozart's Wedding

    *   Missing and Moved Mozart's and Friends

    *   Mozart's Death

    *   Inventory of Count Deym's Wax Museum and Art Gallery

    *   Symbolism in Mozart's Music

    *   Mozart's Death

    *   Mozart's Mother

    *  Deest Pieces - Numbered

    *  Lost Mozart Compositions

    *  Lost Mozart Autograph Scores

    *  Mozart: Meaning and Emotion

    *  The Blaming of Tech Support (related to Mozart)

    *  Food for Thought

    *  Acknowledgements  (contributors to the Information)


    Other Articles Added - Partially Off-Topic: 

    *  The MTM and the Mystery of the Pyramids and Egypt (mostly about Pyramids/Egypt).

        Freemasonry has some connection with Ancient Egypt, and Mozart was a Freemason.

        Since I'm not a Freemason, and don't know what they believe, I simply documented

        the Pyramids (mostly the Great Pyramid at Giza), and let the Reader draw his own


        The MTM **MIGHT** be related to the Pyramids at Giza - at least, later in Mozart's




MTM and Related Events:  1962 - 1990's - 2001 - 2002 ===>.




Preface Continued


Mozart wove his Musical Trademark - the MTM - into much of his music, sometimes

multiple times in a single piece.

The sheer quantity of appearances of the MTM should cause us to pay attention to

its existence, and to investigate why, when, and where Mozart used it.

(So far, I don't have a good answer as to WHY he used it.)


NOTE: Not every single instance of the MTM is "rich and fascinating", or mesmerizing,

     or amazing, or wonderful, etc.  It IS what it IS.  Interesting, complex, compelling, natural,

     satisfying, etc. Don't look for a dazzling gem of music which will transform your life,

     allow you to understand Time and Space, and cause the scales to fall from your eyes

     regarding Mozart's music, or even his personality.

     But to not be aware of it at all, and to not "hear" it, is akin to living on a Flat Earth, with

     no countries other than your own, occupying the flatness, aware that Mozart composed

     a great deal of beautiful music, but not realizing that he used this little gem over and over

     in his music, and marveling at his creative use of it - and sometimes probably using it to

     represent himself.   

     That alone, tells us something about his creative powers and his personality. 

     It all adds to his stature as a composer.

     It certainly won't reveal his complete personality, but it can HELP us understand who

     he was to some degree. 

     And when listening to a new piece of music by Mozart, and not hearing the MTM, we

     can go on a little "Treasure Hunt", if so inclined, and see if we can find it somewhere. 

     It's usually found in pieces in a MINOR key, and might not be present in major-key




If Mozart had hardly ever used the MTM, it would be relatively unimportant.

The frequency of MTM usage means that it IS important.

It would make no sense to say that something that Mozart often did is unimportant -

especially if we're talking about his music.


If Mozart had included a bassoon in dozens and dozens of pieces, it would be fair to

say that the bassoon was an important instrument to him, for some reason Perhaps he

liked the sound, or perhaps he was repeatedly helping a bassoon player find work, etc.

In any event, even if he was neutral in his opinion of the bassoon's musical qualities,

it would be reasonable to state that the bassoon was important to him.

We might not know why, but his frequent usage would demonstrate it - even if he was

simply using the bassoon as a vehicle to help his friend.  

The same is true of the MTM: His frequency of usage of the phrase means that it

was important to him, for some reason.

And he probably wasn't including the MTM in many pieces to help a friend, keep a

promise, or use up ink and paper.


Additionally, he used the MTM phrase in many different ways, shaping it this way

and that way, in an endless variety of shapes. Moreover, he composed Variations on

the phrase. He seemed to be OBSESSED with the MTM phrase.


Thus, there is no question that the MTM is important.

After all, it was important to Mozart.


But what is it? And what does it mean?

As stated on the Home Page, the MTM is:

    *   A Phrase Mozart used Often       

    *   A Variation on a Theme         

    *   A Symbol for his Music                

    *   A Symbol for Mozart - the Man

    *   A Musical Icon of Mozart

    *   Mozart in the Form of Music

    *   Mozart as a Sound Bite 


It was part of Mozart's personality.

And it's a key to understanding part of his personality.


If you want to understand Mozart's music MORE COMPLETELY, and

Mozart the Man MORE COMPLETELY, you need to be able to hear the MTM.

Reason: It was a BIG part of his music.


Not noticing the phrase is like viewing dozens of art works by Vincent Van Gogh,

and not noticing that he used rich and vibrant colors in his paintings.


Can you imagine an interview with a color blind "art expert" who hadn't noticed that

Van Gogh's famous oil paintings (all of them, for that matter) were done in color??

"Paintings in color? Perhaps. I've never noticed his colors, so they couldn't be too important....

I'm color blind anyway, and black-and-white is good enough for me."

Clearly, the so-called "expert" would be an embarrassment to the art world.

Van Gogh was noted for his bold use of color in his oil paintings (among other things).

If you don't see it, you're color blind, and you cannot possibly be "an art expert".


I'm confident that Van Gogh assumed that people had color vision, and noticed the





                          Good.                                                         Better.

                 Starry Night - B&W                                    Starry Night - Color                         


The MTM is integral to understanding Mozart's music and the man, since he used it

over, and over, and over again.

Sometimes it's a simple phrase, sometimes it's complex. But his music is riddled with it,

and can be found in many of his pieces, including the most famous ones. 


Have you ever memorized a piece by Mozart so that you can play it in your head?

Have you ever memorized an entire major work such as a symphony or an opera?

Or the Requiem?


Someone once wrote that the overture to The Marriage of Figaro could not be played

in one's head. All you can hear is a rushing sound, and it can only be heard properly

by listening to a recording or a live performance.

That's odd... I can hear it in my head.... He was wrong. 

The fellow was generalizing for the whole world but didn't know what he was talking about.

Maybe he should have checked with a few people before issuing that sweeping proclamation.


Some pieces and numbers do take some effort to memorize and hear in one's head!!

For example, the overture to the Marriage of Figaro that I just mentioned. For example,

the famous "Queen of the Night" aria in the Magic Flute (difficult!!).

Sometimes I have to listen to a piece (or a short number) as many as FIVE times before

I've memorized it.

To memorize something like an entire opera can take weeks or months.

But it can be done, and I've done it with many pieces.


The point is that you have to "hear" Mozart to appreciate his music, and sometimes

you need to memorize pieces in order to really "hear" them.

Memorization should help with "hearing" Mozart, and "hearing" Mozart should help

with hearing and noticing the Trademark Phrase.


       Listen ====> Memorize ====> Hear the MTM


I guarantee you, Mozart's music is RIDDLED with the phrase - usually in pieces or

passages in a MINOR KEY. 

It's not in every piece, but it's in many of them, and in some cases it appears multiple

times in a single piece.

Note: It's NOT present in the Ave Verum, K.618. That would be a nice, easy "starter piece"

for noticing and examining the MTM, but it's not there.

The Ave Verum is mostly in major keys.

And it's quite rare to find it in a song.


One song (or "scena") which does contain it, is this song in a minor key, of 20 measures:

K.520 - Als Luise die Briefe ihres ungetreuen Liebhabers verbrannte

(As Luise burned the letters of her unfaithful lover).


A sad and moving song, and a fairly short one which can be memorized for starters, which contains

the MTM. The second MTM (of 2) occurs at around 27-30 seconds into the piece, just before

the change in theme. You can't miss it. It's a start.


(Just as interesting is how Mozart depicts the FLAMES of the burning letters with the piano,

as well as the pounding frustration of betrayal and determination to blot out his memory, as

the flames continue to burn!!

Intensely sad, tragic, and painful, with Mozart seemingly pulling out all the stops.

Note that as the flames begin to consume the letters, Mozart reverts to a "happy" Major key

for a while, depicting the Luise's shifting emotions of gleeful triumph, followed by intense pain

and determination, and ending with a mellow codicil of lingering love, converting the flames

of pain and hatred into the soft, flickering flame of hope and possibly gentle love. 

Note also the rich harmony in this piece.) 



                     K.520 - Song or Scena: "Als Luise die Briefe..." 

                          Soprano and Piano (MIDI).  C-Minor. 

                      Short piece - 1 minute, 46 seconds. 20 Measures.

        (MIDI format. The Soprano part is played by a piano in this MIDI version)


       MTM's are located in at least 2 places in this song: 

       1.  M1 - First measure - Intro:  

                     MTM:  Ab-Ab-C-F#  ====>  G-G-B-G

       2.  M6 - Approximately 27-30 seconds into the piece:  

                     MTM:  Ab-C-F#  ===>  G-B-G 


       The 2 MTM's are essentially identical, with the lower notes doubled in the first instance.

       MIDI file from: 

                (Mozart MIDI files)    Contributor: Hansjakob Heldstab

       Sheet music for verifying the notes:

       From the NMA at the Mozarteum, Salzburg.


        Als Luise die Briefe ihres ungetreuen Liebhabers verbrannte

       (When Luise burned the Letters of her unfaithful Lover)


        Erzeugt von heißer Phantasie,

        In einer schwärmerischen Stunde

        Zur Welt gebrachte, geht zu Grunde,

        Ihr Kinder der Melancholie!  (You children of melancholy)


        Ihr danket Flammen euer Sein,

        Ich geb' euch nun den Flammen wieder,

        Und all' die schwärmerischen Lieder,

        Denn ach! er sang nicht mir allein.


        Ihr brennet nun, und bald, ihr Lieben,

        Ist keine Spur von euch mehr hier.

        Doch ach! der Mann, der euch geschrieben,

        Brennt lange noch vielleicht in mir.


                    You borne of such hot fantasy

        In a rapturous hour

        brought into this world - Perish,

        you children of melancholy!


        You owe your existence to the flames,

        so I restore you now to the fire,

        with all your rapturous songs.

        For alas! he sang them not to me alone.


        I burn you now, and soon, you love-letters,

        there will be no trace of you here.

        Yet alas! the man himself, who wrote you,

        may still perhaps burn long in me.



Poem by Gabriele von Baumberg, an acquaintance of Mozart's, probably written in 1786 at age 18.

Original title unknown.

Mozart may have found the poem in the Wiener Musenalmanch auf das Jahr 1786 (Vienna Almanac

of the Muses for the Year 1786), or simply received a copy from Gabriele.

The text may refer to Gabriele herself, and if so, Mozart would probably have known it.

Song composed by Mozart on 26 May 1787. 


In a rarity for Mozart, he struggled with 5 different versions of 2 passages - at the word "Melancholie"

("Ihr Kinder der Melancholie" - "You children of melancholy" - 3 versions), and with the ending

(2 versions), extending it slightly with a postlude, echoing the opening figure.


I can't read Mozart's mind, but these compositional struggles sound more like an emotional conflict

than musical improvements - something he occasionally did.

And even if it turns out that the total of 5 versions of 2 passages were simply musical improvements,

why was it so important to Mozart to make this little piece so perfect? Better, and better, and better

- 3 times after the original music had been written?


The "children of melancholy" are the flames of the fire which are consuming the love-letters, when

she found out that her lover also sang his love songs (or wrote love-letters) to other women.

Alfred Einstein wrote that this piece isn't really a "song" but a small "scena" - a scene, for soloist

and pianist. And where do we find one of the MTM musical phrases?

It's at "Ihr Kinder der Melancholie" - essentially at the heart of the piece.


This little gem is rather complex for being so short (less than 2 minutes long), and might be

difficult to memorize. Mozart apparently put quite a bit of thought into it.

He had his own tragic problems with unrequited love, and this particular song probably had

considerable personal meaning for him. He could certainly identify with "Luise" as she tearfully

burned the letters from her former lover. So, yet again, we have a usage of the MTM in a very

personal way (the MTM at "Melancholie"), as Mozart undoubtedly identified with Luise and

her pain beyond normal human empathy.


This is an example of piece which is not only short and easily memorized, but contains at least

2 MTM's, and where the MTM's might represent Mozart himself due to the similarity between

the song and Mozart's prior experiences with tragedy in love.  Luise was hurt, and Mozart was

hurt. When Mozart wrote about Luise, he might also have been writing about himself, and used

the MTM to depict the other person he was talking about.


The words say "Luise"; the music says "Mozart". 

The song is apparently about Luise AND Mozart.  

We can be confident in that conclusion from Mozart's history, from the similarity of the

names "Luise" and "Aloysia", the title "Als Luise" (almost identical to "Aloysia"),  and

from his use of 2 MTM's in this piece, with the first one appearing almost immediately. 

"Als Luise - Aloysia" and 2 MTM's:  Mozart's emotions were heavily involved in this piece.

("Aloysia" above, means "Aloysia Weber Lange" - Mozart's first serious love.

This piece is probably partially related to her.) 


This is an example of where awareness of the MTM can add to the depth of meaning of a piece.

Students of Mozart's life know that he was hurt and rebuffed by Aloysia Weber (the sister of

his wife, Constance) in his first serious love, and can easily see a connection between Mozart's

love life and the song "Als Luise", as well as the implicit "connection" between Mozart and Luise,

both going through the pangs of Love's Labor Lost (one would think "worse" for Luise, since

she had been betrayed by her lover, and I don't recall that Aloysia actually betrayed Mozart,

although it probably felt like it. Aloysia was cajoled by her mother to rebuff Mozart, but Mozart

didn't realize it. He was just mysteriously dumped with no explanation.)


But how many people recognized the probable DEPICTION of Mozart in that song, where he

depicted Luise with his own musical symbol - the MTM??  

Mozart BECAME Luise in that song through the use of his special music.

He was not just saying "That poor girl...", but writing about BOTH Luise and himself.

Knowledge of the MTM showed us that his own tragic experiences in love were just as painful

for him as for Luise. And we know that because he was writing music about himself.

We know from the music that he felt like Luise, and he felt betrayed, or the emotional equivalent

of being betrayed.


Note that a purely "technical" analysis (Key, clef, meter, voice range, arpeggios, etc) misses

some of the most important points of the piece, dehumanizes it, looks at it through a straw,

and converts it into a meaningless folder of musicological facts ready for a filing cabinet.

Mechanical, unimpressive, and rather meaningless cardboard.

It's similar to describing a close friend ONLY with his height, weight, color of eyes, color

of hair, number of dental fillings, allergies, license plate, etc.

Understanding some of Luise's pain, and possibly Mozart's, and how it was described musically,

are what make this piece come alive, and make it the living entity that Mozart created.

Speculation and Interpretation?? Not much.  I think Mozart was pretty clear with his musical

symbolism that any human being would understand. The "Aloysia" linkage is speculation, but

considering the nearly identical names/titles and Mozart's history with her, the chances that

Mozart was writing PARTLY about her are good.

He may also have been writing about a past or recent event in the life of the woman who wrote

the poem, since they knew each other, and there's a good chance she was writing about herself. 


What a sad song. The MTM has probably shown a light into Mozart's heart, and we wish we

could have been there to somehow heal it or prevent the pain in the first place. 

Thank goodness he found Constance. Not his first choice, but she made him happy, and they

were fortunate to find each other.


(But in a twist of Life imitating Art, Constance too burned some letters after Mozart died.

I wonder who they were from?? Nancy Storace?? Constance was aware of this song and sold

the autograph copy to a music publisher, who published it under Mozart's name in 1799 using

the title "Unhappy Love" - previously published as the work of Emil von Jacquin, Mozart's close

friend. But Constance straightened things out in 1799, backed up by the autograph score in her



Off-Topic Anecdote:

This is all Plain-Vanilla "Life-Imitates-Art", rather than the usual "Art-Imitates-Life" compared

with the sad, true, and horrific story of the actress Susan Cabot, who played the star in the

movie "Wasp Woman" - a 1950's horror film, then went on to imitate her character after

doing the picture. Desperate to remain young and pretty for starring roles, she resorted to

swiping and taking her Dwarf son's Growth Hormone. We'll never know what else she did

because there was only a Hearing for her death (no Trial), and the Court records of the Hearing

are sealed "Forever", if I remember correctly. No one went to jail for her death. Tragic.


The movie was a dumb, black & white, non-thriller, with the Hollywood ads FAR more

interesting than the movie. But she did a good job, and had some genuine acting talent.

She might never have been a big star, due to the heavy competition, but she was solid, and

probably could have gone on for years in second or third Hollywood roles, or making a living

doing "B-Movies" like "Wasp Woman".


Instead, she took the route, more or less, of the last character she played, and paid the same

price (the Wasp Woman took wasp venom injections to retain her youth, but eventually

turned into a wasp, while Susan Cabot in real life used Growth Hormone and turned into

something unknown.)

Luise lost her boyfriend, Mozart lost his girlfriend, the author of the poem probably lost her

boyfriend, and Susan Cabot slowly lost her beauty as she aged, lost her mind, and then lost

her life. Very sad. Very tragic.   


If we could bring Mozart back to the present day and ask him about how he felt about being

rebuffed by Aloysia, he might reply "It's none of your business!!".

On the other hand, he might reply, "I wrote a song about it called "Als Luise". That's all I want

to say. Next question."


(Reporters are always prying into people's personal feelings, as if it was their business. I doubt

that Mozart would put up with that nonsense and invasion of privacy, but he might refer the

reporter to this song. Everyone has to express himself, and Mozart did so mostly through music.)


The autograph score of "Als Luise" sold at Christie's auction in 2003 for $435,355 or almost

$22,000 per measure. But you have die before your art commands such high prices. 





              Here's an easier one:  K.472 - Song: "Der Zauberer" 

                                Soprano and Piano (MIDI).

             The MTM appears 4 times with the repeats, and it's easier to memorize.


The next step would be to memorize some longer pieces with the MTM -  some symphonies,

some piano concertos, etc.


If you think the MTM is rare, or doesn't exist, or that it's barely noticeable and not

important, I would ask you the following questions:

    1. How many pieces by Mozart have you memorized?

    2. Which ones are they?


If the first answer is "None", or the second answer is one short piece such as a song,

then you should try to memorize a few short pieces and a few lengthy pieces containing

the MTM.


When you've memorized a few appropriate symphonies and an entire opera or two,

or even K.594 and K.608, you'll have a much better understanding of the music. I've done

all of those things. And for operas, I used to know Cosi fan Tutte and The Magic Flute by

heart, as well as most or all of Don Giovanni and the Requiem. 


In fact, I heard of one man (a PhD biochemist and author) who had not only memorized

the Requiem, but could sing it from start to finish!! An amazing accomplishment.

You, dear reader, don't need to do anything that difficult, or even memorize anything

if you hear and understand the MTM.

But if you think the idea of the MTM is bunk, or you've never noticed it, then you should

start memorizing and "hearing".

You can use my list of pieces in this document (a partial list).

Memorize pieces containing the MTM, of course.


Again, there's no need to memorize anything if you hear the MTM in Mozart's music.

If you don't hear it, memorizing some pieces might help you hear it.


This FAQ will fill in some of the miscellaneous questions surrounding music in general,

the MTM and my understanding of it, good and bad MIDI files, my opinion of the movie

Amadeus, etc. I hope it helps. 


Dave Morton






MIDI Files, MP3's, Soloists, etc.

When I listen to Mozart, I do it mostly on the computer, listening to MP3's and MIDI files.

I have an excellent sound card for MIDI files (a Soundblaster) and large speakers about

8 inches tall (big for a computer), and have had the equipment for years.


I keep **only** good or excellent MIDI files, and delete the awful ones. Many MIDI files are

terrible, some are "okay", and some are excellent. In fact, some MIDI's are recordings

of live performances converted to MIDI format. Several of my Chopin MIDI files were

created that way, and their quality is just OUTSTANDING - better than other formats

such as MP3, WAV, and others. I usually have pieces in both MIDI and MP3 or WAV

format, so I can easily compare them with a click of the mouse. And the "excellent"

MIDI files are so much better then the MP3's that it's just amazing. Good equipment



Can you believe it? It's true. My Chopin MIDI files, and MIDI's of many other composers,

are actually BETTER than the MP3 or WAV versions.

I don't know why that is, but they're a real pleasure to listen to.


In some cases, you have to use MIDI software to change a couple of the instrument types,

since the official and correct instruments sometimes don't sound very good.

But if the score is laid out correctly, it's fairly easy to do.

Even changing a "single violin" to a "string orchestra" can be done with a few clicks, greatly

improving the sound. (A "single violin" in a MIDI file, even with good equipment, usually

doesn't sound very pleasing.)  Changing a "single voice" to a "chorus" can also be done with

a few clicks, greatly improving the sound.


Making a good MIDI file on a computer is hard work!! You have to know what you're doing,

have plenty of experience, have good equipment, have good software, and be prepared to invest

quite a bit of time in each piece. With luck, it MIGHT turn out well. This is only for MIDI files

created on a computer using a computer keyboard.


If you have special equipment to convert a recording into a MIDI file, then you don't need

to go to all that work, and the results should be excellent. That's how the Chopin MIDI's

were created (created by professionals, with the music played by professionals), and the

results were incredibly good. They're essentially "live recordings" in MIDI format, and they

sound better than any MP3 or WAV files of the same music.


So understand, some MIDI files are actual recordings of the performance!!

My Chopin MIDI's, and a few others, are actual RECORDINGS of a live performance.

And they are outstanding!!! They are the best versions I have.

For playback, I have a good Sound Card and large speakers.

Sound Card: Soundblaster.   Speakers: IBM - 10 inches tall. 


Converting MIDI files to MP3 files doesn't produce very good results in my

experience, but other conversion programs might do a better job. There is a huge amount

of music software available, but it takes a great deal of time and money to test them and

decide what to use.


Having MIDI software that allows one to compose music is a very handy feature of MIDI

files. I've composed a few things and "improved" a few pieces - sometimes improving

by simply changing the MIDI instruments, and sometimes by re-writing parts of the piece.

The Sanctus from Mozart's Requiem is an example of the latter, where I attempted to

improve the "Sussmayr" parts - not the Mozart parts. But even with good tools and good

equipment, fixing the Sanctus has been very difficult. Mozart is greatly missed!! If only

he had lived a few more months... If only...


MIDI files normally keep the tempo perfectly.

MP3/WAV files hardly ever keep the tempo.


Again, ranking MIDI file quality (and MP3 and WAV files), there are 3 types:


     *  Excellent/Outstanding.

     *  Fair/Okay.

     *  Just awful    (lack of skill by the creator and/or inferior equipment).


     MP3's and WAV's

     *  Excellent/Outstanding.

     *  Fair/Okay.

     *  Just awful    (audio problems or soloist-tempo problems - severe dragging,

         tastelessness,  etc).

         Mozart would have a fit with some of the wretched performances!!

         Tastelessness and Wretchedness abound in modern performances!!!!!


Why do I rank some MP3's and WAV files so low?

Mainly for 2 reasons:


   1. Poor Audio.

    Some MP3's have quite poor audio quality - sometimes "just awful" audio.

    I have good audio equipment, and it's well optimized, so the problem is with the input -

    not with my equipment.

    I play computerized music only on my desktop computer with the big speakers and big

    sound card. I never play music on my laptop with its tiny speakers.


   2. Dragging.

   "Oh, dear me - I'm so overcome with art that I think I may faint -

   so Affected, so Woozy, so Light-Headed, so powerless to stop this

   "Syrup of Art" from drowning me in Swooning, stunned by the

    perfection of the Master's Creation, as I, a mere Peon, struggle

    to cope with powerful and Irresistible Emotions poured upon

    me from Heaven, to perform for my many fans, in this Artsy Fartsy

    milieu of International Culture and Coloraturas....".   


     (I get emotional TOO, as a performer.     

     It can be difficult to continue, sometimes, but you need to grit your teeth and forge ahead.

     Concentrate hard, pay attention, push away the really strong emotions temporarily, and do

     your best. Then the performance will be done correctly and professionally.

     After all, that's why you're performing it: To perform it correctly and professionally.

     If they just wanted someone to Swoon and Drag, they would have hired a Swooner and

     Dragger to "perform" the piece - not a competent musician.)


     "Help Wanted: A Swooner and Dragger with bad vision and deep cleavage, schooled

     in the Over-Acting Method of delivering fake emotion to Culture Vultures.

     Must not know what a "beat" is.

     Must not be able to keep time with the music.

     Must never sing in proper tempo.

     Must always enter late.

     Must always drag behind the Conductor.

     Must use an hourglass for a clock.

     Must not know how to read music.

     Must not understand music.

     Must not understand "foreign" words.

     Must be able to convince clueless audiences that you know what you're doing.

     Please bring your own boxes of Kleenex." 


Many soloists - singers, pianists, etc, have wretched taste, and should go into another line

of work, such as MOWING LAWNS OR CLEANING SWIMMING POOLS or something.


The main problem is dragging, thinking that if they hold a note 50 percent longer than is written,

that makes it sound 50 percent better.

All it does it make them look 50 percent stupider. It's not the way the music was written. 

A ritard (ritardando) at the end of a movement, or at the end of a unique phrase, is one thing - and

perfectly all right in most cases.

To ritard on every beat, dragging behind the orchestra by a country mile displays a monumental

failure to read and understand the music.

Such so-called "performers" are not musicians. I don't know what they are.

In their time off, they probably mow lawns and clean swimming pools. 


And these "dragging" problems exist with many Mozart recordings from perhaps the 1980's forward.

I'm not sure when they started, but I don't recall hearing such "affected" performances from

soloists in the 1950's and 1960's, seemingly on the verge of passing out as they become so

"overcome with art" that they can barely continue. Gag me.      

Or grossly UNDER-played. I saw a production of Cosi fan Tutte done by the NY Met where the

old philosopher, Don Alfonso, was played by a man who acted like a hotel doorman. Nothingness.

Pointlessness. Emptiness. A waste of time and money. The local opera company did a MUCH better




Renee Fleming, Soprano, is outstanding - especially in her performance of "Panis Angelicus".

That one is pure angel food cake, and she is a wonderful artist with genuine taste and talent.


     Additional Exception:

     A YouTube performance of Mozart's Lucio Silla, K.135, done in 2008.

     Orchestra:  Danish Radio Sinfonietta.

     Performers: Lothar Odinius (Lucio Silla), tenor; Simone Nold (Giunia), soprano;

     Kristina Hammarström (Cecilio), alto; Henriette Bonde-Hansen (Cinna), soprano. 

     Beautifully and tastefully done.


Soloists with good taste are rare - VERY rare.

This is the PRIMARY advantage of having Mozart - or any other composer - in MIDI format:

You don't have to put up with the nonsense and pseudo-emotional hype from musical pretenders

who don't have a clue what they're doing.

But if a MIDI file is well done, it can have perfect taste and even better audio than an MP3/WAV.


In an ironic twist, my MIDI files of Chopin were performed by one or more outstanding pianists,

and recorded on special MIDI equipment. The sound is superb (on my equipment) and better

than comparable MP3/WAV recordings. But obtaining such MIDI files is partly a matter of luck,

and hours of searching. They are superb because the pianists were superb (they were REAL

musicians - not fake ones), and the recording equipment was excellent.


But most MIDI files are created on a computer (I think), and making them sound decent is

VERY difficult for the technician creating them. It's a skill and an art, but some people have

succeeded. Occasionally, there are mistakes in MIDI files, but with the right MIDI software,

mistakes can be fixed. You can't do that with an MP3 or WAV file.

I keep the good MIDI files and throw away the rest.


Note: Buying a "New Computer" to solve problems of poor audio - MP3/WAV or MIDI - is a

waste of money unless you're certain that it has a good sound card and large speakers.

Test it before buying it, if possible.

For testing MIDI files, download some Chopin MIDI files by Hisamori (artist).

For example, the Chopin Etudes - Opus 10 and Opus 25. 

The MIDI quality is outstanding, and Hisamori is a consummate pianist.

Finley and Lubetsky are also excellent interpreters of Chopin, and their performed MIDI recordings

are excellent. .

These MIDI recordings are BETTER than any other Chopin recordings I've heard - vinyl record,

audio CD, or MP3/WAV, and the artists are as good as or better than any "big name" artist by far.

Certainly much better than Artur Rubenstein!! (Awful).

If you're soured on MIDI files, and think that they're all "junk", you're clueless and wrong.

I have HUNDREDS of outstanding MIDI files.

There are several possible reasons for your opinion:

    1. You're using cheap Sound equipment - even if it's a New computer.

    2. The speakers on your desktop computer are too small or of poor quality.

    3. You're playing them on a laptop computer (TINY speakers).

    4. You're playing them on a small, portable device (TINY speakers or earphones).

        Note: You MIGHT be able to get decent sound with a set of high quality earphones -

        a headset with 2 earphones. A single earplug won't give you quality sound.

    5. The MIDI's were created by an amateur who isn't very good at it.

        Delete it if it's really bad. I've deleted hundreds of poor quality MIDI files.

    6. For MIDI recordings (piano, etc), the artists are lacking in talent.

        Find better artists, then delete the low-talent MIDI files.

    7. You're using a low-quality player.

        I use an old version of Windows Media Player that came Free with Windows/XP,

        and it works fine. Earlier versions were also excellent.

        It plays almost every format of audio that's been invented.

        The latest and greatest versions of software are not always better, and sometimes

        they're more difficult to use than the old version, with more buttons, etc.


People probably don't buy desktop computers with good sound in mind.

You need to do that, or upgrade your computer's Sound equipment.

There's no need to spend a lot of money. You can have excellent sound for perhaps $100 or so.

That should cover 2 speakers and a good sound card. Rough estimate.

Search the web to get more information on desktop computers with good sound, that play

MIDI files well, as well as the other formats.

I was lucky: My first desktop computer came from the factory with good sound equipment,

so I didn't have to buy or install anything - hardware or software.

Note: The Soundblaster sound card "X-Fi Extreme Audio" in my latest computer has problems

with a later version of "Music Creator" which is a MIDI editing program, when running Windows/XP,

and even running in compatibility mode for Windows/98 and other older operating systems.

I haven't been able to fix it. Older Soundblaster cards worked fine. If purchasing a Soundblaster

card, I recommend buying an older one to avoid such problems. Ebay might have some.

If you don't plan to do any editing of MIDI files, any Soundblaster card will probably work fine.


"But my husband bought this new computer for me, and he said it was a good one."

Maybe it is a good one. But he probably doesn't know anything about computer sound, MIDI files,

MP3's, Mozart, Chopin, etc. And if your MIDI files sound awful, review the points above.

With the right hardware and software, and the right MIDI files, MIDI's can sound OUTSTANDING.

I know that for a fact. The ones I've kept sound outstanding. The junk got deleted. I've downloaded

hundreds of terrible MIDI files and deleted all of them. I only keep the good ones.


Remember: DELETE THE BAD MIDI FILES AS SOON AS POSSIBLE unless that's the only

version of the piece you can find. 


If you're nervous about deleting them, move them to some folder like "Bad MIDI Files" to save them,

and delete them sometime in the future.

Sometimes I will keep a terrible MIDI file on my computer if it's the only version I have of the piece,

but I will search for something better (MIDI or MP3), and delete the terrible MIDI file when I find

a better version.

Better to have one terrible version of a piece than none at all - temporarily.


On RARE occasions, a terrible MIDI version is the only version I can find for the computer. 


MP3's:  Some MP3's are HORRIBLE!!

Today's Opera Soloists:  Most of them are HORRIBLE!!

Especially with "dragging" soloists, so affected by the music that they can hardly continue,

OVERCOME WITH ART, calling for smelling salts to keep them conscious,

as they swoon with fake emotion, possibly done to make the listener think that the artist actually

understands what the composer was trying to say, and must publicly emote to prove it.

As soon as I can find something better, the stupid one gets deleted.

Even if I purchased it, it gets deleted as soon as I find something better.

Listening to such performances is just an exercise in self-abuse and torture.


No wonder classical music isn't popular with the masses.

They can't stand some of the the performers.

Wolfgang would have a field day with some of these performers!!

You don't get "stupid dragging emoting soloists" with MIDI files, thank goodness.


And all my new music gets backed up to external USB drives and thumb drives at least once

a week, giving me a full copy of all the music - MIDI's, MP3's, notes, websites, etc, adding only

the NEW music to the large music folder. I don't need to backup the entire huge folder of audio

files - just the additions, and I delete the copies of the bad music in the backup folder. 






Mozart's Geburtshaus (Birth House)

I've been to Mozart's Geburtshaus (birth house) in Salzburg twice, years ago, and saw a

lock of his hair on display, under glass. With a little luck and the right equipment, perhaps

a new Mozart could be cloned from a strand of his hair. Someone really needs to try!!

(I don't think the lock of hair is there, anymore.)

The original versions of some of the famous Mozart paintings were hanging there, and it

was a wonderful experience to see them.

There was also a walkway along one side of the house on the outside, with a beautiful view

of grassland and mountains, and I was able to take some pictures.

The view was a "Sound of Music" type of scene: Fresh, amazing, glorious, and inspiring. 



Autograph Copies of Documents

I have some copies of Mozart's autograph scores including the Ave Verum, as well as

a copy of his Thematic Catalog with an English translation and explanation. 

The Requiem isn't listed in his Catalog because he never finished it, and therefore didn't

enter it.

The blank pages following the last page of entries in his Catalog are heartbreaking.

Page after page of blank sheets of paper, all waiting for Mozart to fill them in with entries

for the waning days of 1791, all of 1792, 1793, 1794, 1795, etc. 






The Movie Amadeus

This section includes my opinion of the movie "Salieri" - I mean "Amadeus" -

a beautiful film, but the so-called writer should be shot for his depiction of Mozart.

That part was pure TRASH, and was an unforgivable slur on the Master who

was a greater human being than the so-called writer can ever hope to be.


To repeat: Peter X, the author and disturbed child, should be shot.


He's a traitor to the Human Race.


It seems that the writer, Peter X,  was deeply disturbed by the fact that Wolfgang sometimes

used naughty words in his letters. He actually said that. YES, HE ACTUALLY SAID THAT.














What a disturbed child the writer is!!


So, he apparently set out to "prove" that Wolfgang was therefore a silly, juvenile, foolish,

corrupt slime ball, unworthy of our admiration, certainly unimportant, and TRASH the

reputation of the greatest composer who ever lived, well-known for his goodness and

kindness, well-known for his depth and maturity, well-known for being admired and loved

by many people during his lifetime, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.


All it proved was that the amateur so-called "writer" was emotionally disturbed, psychopathic,

way out of his depth, and was a BOZO and a SLANDERER.


Even my NON-Mozartian friends who saw the film seemed MYSTIFIED by the portrayal of

Mozart, and mentioned that it was quite an insult to him.

MYSTIFIED!!!!  And they said the movie was INSULTING to Mozart!!!!

They were right on target.   


Before we get started on my review of the movie, let me say that I understand that many

people were introduced to Mozart's music through this movie. That's good. The director,

the orchestra, the conductor, various performers, and of course, Mozart, deserve high praise

for their excellent work!! Thank you, musicians and film crew, and thank you Mozart!!


One of my sisters worked on the sound track for the movie "Amadeus". The scenery was

lush and beautiful, the costumes were perfect, most of the acting was excellent, the

cinematography was outstanding, the music was excellent and beautifully played, and the

portrayal of Mozart was just ridiculous. Trash.

Peter what's-his-name, the author, should be arrested and imprisoned for life for his

trashing of this great genius. Disgusting and outrageous.


I guess P what's-his-name must have had problems with his toilet training, and whenever

he sees naughty words, lashes out at those people to make his mommy proud of him.

I don't know what else could explain it, although a child psychologist might be able

to find deeper, more disturbing issues for P's abnormal, psychopathic behavior. 


I can hear Peter's mommy now: "That's right, Peter. We don't use naughty words, do we?

Good boy!! That Amadeus boy was bad, wasn't he? Very good. We don't like people who use

naughty words, do we? No..... Did you clean your room? I'll give you some milk and cookies

when you finish."

Problem: Peter is in his FORTIES - not a little kid, and still living at home with his mommy, trying

to make his mommy proud of him by attacking other boys who use naughty words.

When he saw some of Mozart's letters, and saw that Wolfie had used some bad words, he

saw his BIG chance to impress her, attacking Wolfgang in every possible way!!

I'll just bet that little Peter gets milk and cookies every day from his mommy, after writing

that movie - and play.

Oh well. What's a mother to do when she has a retarded son??


If I ever become Dictator, the name of Peter what's-his-name will be erased from all

books, movies, websites, etc, and he will be imprisoned for life, with a continuous

audio tape playing of finger nails scratching on a blackboard, and utensils scratching on a pan.


Possible Conspiracy:

It may have been part of a larger plot by persons unknown to destroy Western

Civilization, with Mozart as one of its leading protagonists, by committing such crimes

against humanity as casting "Pinto" - The Nerd from "Animal House" as Mozart, and

making him a silly, adolescent, bumbling simpleton, bowing to the doorman instead of

to the Emperor, rudely or thoughtlessly insulting Salieri at every opportunity, going

crazy at one point, etc, etc, etc. It's bad enough that P-what's-his-name is nothing

more than an amateur playwright, clearly far out of his depth with that movie, but he

had no right to savage the character of a man who was so much greater than himself,

that there's no yardstick with which to make a comparison since the distance is so great.

They are light years apart, with Mozart in Heaven, and P-what's-his-name drooling in

some dump.


Why destroy Western Civilization?? Who knows - but they've been trying to do it for

decades - the Communists, the New World Order, the United Nations, and others.

From the murder of JFK (definitely a conspiracy - a secret group effort), to the celluloid

murder of Mozart, as played by "Pinto" the Nerd, to the NASA executives who blur and

deny artifacts found on Mars (I have the pictures), to the endless, draining wars, etc, etc.

It's not much of a reach to conclude that "They" are up to no good. That white picket

fence has been rotting from the inside for years because of these criminals.


The world is saturated with criminals, morons, Communists, thugs, bullies, dimwits,

thieves, murderers, jealous people, liars, dishonest people, monsters, poisoners,

believers in nonsense, Nut Jobs, Wackos, immoral people, Bible Thumpers, Shady 

Characters, rioters, intimidators, traitors, bribers, people who take bribes, amoral people,

wild animals, price gougers, extremely greedy people, clueless people, self-righteous people,

sadistic people, fanatics, lunatics, extremists, violent people, incompetent people, slimy people,

scumbags, Psychopaths, Sociopaths, lazy people, etc, some of whom seem to think that they

can build themselves up by tearing others down, and that they have a RIGHT to destroy

Western Civilization - the civilization that gave them MOST of what they like - the Internet,

computers, cars, radios, television, cable TV, satellite TV, cell phones, highways, antibiotics,

surgery, pain medication, airliners, weather forecasting via satellite, robots landing on the

Moon and Mars, clean water, modern indoor plumbing, video games, food, flood control, etc. 

Incredible. The ingratitude!!


If you don't appreciate these things, be sure to grow your own food, throw away your

cell-phone/telephone, walk everywhere you go or take your oxcart, etc. 


Mozart was the OPPOSITE of these people, a symbol of the pinnacle of Western Civilization,

and a natural target for the scum who think they will look better and achieve more if only they

can get rid of the high achievers - like Mozart. And the stupid, simmering ones who think that

the wealthy and the high achievers are cheating or using magic, when maybe it was hard work

and dedication that brought them their better lifestyle.  




The "Confutatis" scene, with the grey carriage of death racing through the night, was

outstanding - tense, riveting, and frightening.

But the racing gray carriage scene was done by the Director Milos Foreman and

the cinematographer  - not by P. It was ADDED to the movie by the movie-makers who saw

what a great combination that would be - the Confutatis and the racing, grey carriage.

P had nothing to do with it (naturally).

(Actually, ALL the good stuff in the movie was done by "somebody else" - not by P.) 




                                 Confutatis - Liszt Piano Version


And the silly question by Mozart ("So now the Confutatis. Confutatis Maledictis.  

When the wicked are confounded. Flammis acribus addictis. How would you translate

that?") which introduced the scene makes yet another mockery of the man who knew

German, Latin, Italian, and a smattering of English, and sounds more like Pinto The Nerd

than Wolfgang Mozart. It was still Larry Kroger (Pinto) dressed up as Mozart, and Larry

Kroger didn't know any Latin.

The genius who wrote reams of church music in Latin, and wrote an opera in Latin at the

young age of 11 (Apollo et Hyacinth), is asking Salieri how he would translate a Latin phrase

for a piece of sacred music?"  Not likely.

(It means "Sentenced to acrid flames", and we hear both the flames and the confusion or

confounding [confutatis] in the Confutatis number, in the fires of Hell which Mozart so aptly

described, as the flames lap around the wicked, and they shout their confused anguish,

interspersed with the honest purity of the rest of us with "Voca me..."  -  "Call me...",

then alternating major and minor, major and minor, in a confusing turmoil.

Mozart almost certainly knew the translation without consulting with Salieri...) 


How about, "I need to start writing the Confutatis next, but I'm getting weaker and a

little confused, myself. I must finish my Requiem before the Grim Reaper finishes ME.

Could you help me finish it, my dear friend? Could you write down the notes for me

while my brain can still play the music in my head?"

Of course, that would be a fictional account - all fiction, but a better fictional account than

what was served to us by the disturbed playwright.


     From Time Magazine, 1984:

     "David Cairns (British writer and musician) called Amadeus "MYTH-MONGERING"

     and argued against P's portrait of "two contradictory beings, sublime artist and fool"

     in favour of a "fundamentally well-integrated" Mozart." 

     Well-put, Mr. Cairns. Thank you.


     "Two contradictory beings, sublime artist and fool."

      That's what the movie Amadeus gave us as a description of Mozart.

      Myth-Mongering. Lying. Slandering.


     The Mozart of the movie "Amadeus" is a MYTH, and P what's-his-name (the author) is a

     MYTH-MONGERER, as Mr. Cairns so eloquently put it.

     More direct descriptions for P would be a "LIAR" and a "SLANDERER", (and an emotionally

     disturbed psychopath) since Mozart was not "two contradictory beings, sublime artist and [a] fool".


F. Murray Abraham as Antonio Salieri was excellent. In fact, the movie should have carried

the title of "Salieri" - not "Amadeus".  It was really a movie about Salieri, and Mozart was

just an irritating after-thought.


Salieri was a decent man, and he and Mozart were friends, but his music is so forgettable that it's

rarely played today. And using a few naughty words, here and there, was COMMON back then.

Even the women used them - at least in letters. Maybe P, the Chief Morality Pig and author, should

have done the following:

1. Checked his European history.

2. Checked his Mozart history (Mozart didn't have a high-pitched giggle).

3. Read some letters written by Mozart's mother.

4. Read some letters written by his female cousin, Thekla.

    Miss Thekla was not exactly the vision of purity and holiness!!

5. And checked in with his Shrink for a few hundred sessions before leaping into the

    lonely void of Mozart-bashing, just because he discovered that Wolfgang said "Oh heck"

    (and worse) occasionally.


Is P what's-his-name the Official Morality Police - the Chief Supreme Exalted Morality Pig

Most High?? Does "P" stand for "Police"?? Or perhaps "Pig"??

You've heard of Top Gun. What about Top Pig?? P-what's-his-name might qualify!!


If Mozart had some character aberrations, do we need to advertise them to the world,

hanging out the dirty laundry on the clothesline, and saying, "See?? He was sometimes

childish and sometimes used naughty words."??? Big deal.


Would you do that to your kids?? Would you erect a huge banner in front of your house

saying, "Billy didn't clean his room today, and he spilled grape juice on his T-shirt.

He's a rotten kid. We like our dog better. Signed, Mom and Dad."??

Only a cruel, sadistic, twisted worm would do such a thing.

P what's-his-name did it to Mozart. In today's parlance, it might read like this:

"Mozart didn't clean his room today, and he spilled grape juice on his T-shirt.

He's a rotten kid. We like our dog better. Signed, Mom and Dad."??

That's essentially what P what's-his-name did to Mozart.


And you don't get any credit for your GOOD works or good words - even if they were

in Latin, such as "Ave verum corpus, natum de Maria virgine...".

If you ever used any naughty words, or even did something a bit silly, you're a horrible,

immature, disgusting person, according to P what's-his-name, Chief Supreme Exalted

Morality Pig Most High in the Highest Very Tip Top, whose lips have never touched

liquor, who doesn't dance, play cards, smoke, tell any off-color jokes, or carry on, drives

10 miles per hour down the freeway with an autographed picture of a Pig on his dashboard.

P of the Morality Police Pigs - you're demented, infantile, and revolting.




My hat's off to Milos Foreman (the Director of Amadeus) and others involved in the

making of the film. 

Thank you, film crew, for the beautiful scenery, costumes, music, etc!!

Thank you actors (except Mozart) for your wonderful work - especially F. Murray

Abraham who played Salieri!!

Thank you all, very much!!  Excellent work, everyone!!  Outstanding work!!

Thank you, thank you, thank you!!!!


It's not your fault that Peter X, the author, traitor, Communist, moron, and disturbed

psychopath, depicted Mozart partly as a Fool.






Q1: What is your background?

Music: I started piano lessons at age 5, and continued until around age 12, as I recall.

In my late teens (early 1960's), I became very interested in Mozart, and began listening

to everything I could borrow from the library, or purchase for myself.

Our family owned a fair amount of music on LP records, including Eine Kleine Nachtmusik,

the Haffner Symphony, the 40th and 41st Symphonies, and the Requiem (Robert Shaw's

version from the 1950's or early 1960's - an excellent version).  We also had music by

Respighi, The Pines of Rome, The Fountains of Rome, Hindemith's Four Temperaments,

a Beethoven violin concerto, Ravel's Daphnis et Chloe (which was a performance by

Dad's choir and the Minnesota Orchestra), and other pieces.


(Daphnis et Chloe: An alto in the front row fainted on stage, and was immediately caught

by the alto standing next to her, and dragged off stage. Scary. She was fine.

During some other concert, a lady's necklace broke outside the auditorium on the metal

staircase, and we heard every single necklace bead bounce down the many stairs to the

chuckling from the audience, the orchestra, and the conductor. Talk about bad luck...!!

Those and other problems are why I prefer recordings to live performances.)


My Dad was a professor of music, and my Mom was a professional pianist and stay-at-home

mom. She also played the organ at our church. She once performed for Emperor Haile Selassie

of Ethiopia, after the 5-course dinner, when he visited St. Paul, Minnesota.

(She brought home some souvenirs - the menu, the program, etc). 


We had many music friends, including Ethel DeLong, soprano, who once sang in a Metropolitan

Opera performance in New York.

There was a player piano at the DeLong's house, and it was a joy to "play" when I was a kid,

putting in music rolls such as "Tico Tico". Endless fun.


I heard a good performance of Mozart's Requiem at the local college, in the 1950's, with a

student soprano soloist named Joanne Jewel who had the most beautiful, purest soprano voice

I've ever heard - perfectly suited to the Requiem. I've never heard anyone as good as her for

singing the Requiem. I can still hear her singing "Lux aeterna..." in my mind. Pure heaven.

And she was just a college student - not a professional soloist. But she was the best I've ever

heard for singing the Requiem.


I sang Bach's "Mass in B Minor" and Carl Orff's "Carmina Burana" with the Minnesota Orchestra

at Northrup Auditorium in the 1960's. Quite a thrill to sing them with over 200 voices in the

choir. The opening "Kyrie" of the B-Minor Mass, complete with an enormous pipe organ adding

to the sound of the orchestra, was an incredible event, as a WALL OF SOUND seemingly went forth

across the 5-state region, heard by millions of people - at least, that's what it sounded like.  

An incomparable thrill. The only problem with the Mass in B Minor is that it's too long, and the

audience gets tired towards the end - even with an intermission. But for me, it was a thrilling

experience. Carmina Burana, also performed at Northrup Auditorium with the Minnesota Orchestra,

was shorter and easier, and I sang in the male sextext of "Si puer cum puelula, moraretur in cielula"

(from memory). I was very nervous. but we pulled it off and did a good job - especially the Tenors,

with the piece's demanding high range. 

(The orchestra was called the "Minneapolis Symphony Orchestra" in those days.)


I sang Bass for many years in a community choir, singing Mozart's Requiem, Brahms Requiem,

Bach's Mass in B Minor (again), Carmina Burana (again), Beethoven's Ninth Symphony,

Mozart's Ave Verum, one of Mozart's "Regina Coeli's" (K.276), a Bach Chorale, and many others.


John Cage was a friend of my Dad's, and he used to come over when he was in town.

I heard one of his "performances" once. What a waste. His "music" reminds me of a phrase

from the movie "Flight of the Phoenix", when Hardy Kruger says to Jimmy Stewart:

        "Mr. Townes, you behave as if stupidity were a virtue."

Quite true. Stewart finally came around, but John Cage was probably a hopeless case.

I mean, the guy was intentionally stupid, claiming (as I dimly recall) that "everything is music -

even noise".

At a performance he gave at our college, his "instruments" were tape recorders.

He just recorded everyday sounds, then played them. 

Two buttons were required for his instruments: RECORD and PLAY. Unbelievable.

It was essentially a "performance" by a Third Grader who had just learned how to use

a tape recorder.

When it was over, everyone just sat there, stunned into stony silence like Dead Parrots,

afraid to be the first to ask a question of this monumentally retarded and neurotic person,

impersonating an adult, who probably takes the Short Bus everywhere he goes, has his

address and phone number written in his cap, and sleeps with his tape recorders. 

If music is just ambient sound, then Mozart is no better than a jackhammer or a car horn or

a jet flying overhead. Or a hippie with a dirty T-shirt contemplating his navel lint, saying nothing. 

How could anyone buy into this utter nonsense??

Consciousness raising?? I prefer to TUNE OUT most of the noise. The lawnmowers,

the chainsaws, the tree chippers, the leaf blowers, the trucks, the jets, the sirens, the

dog that barks for 1 or 2 hours nonstop, the floor sanders with the windows open,

the hospital helicopter flying 100 feet over my house yet again, the motorcycles,

the really LOUD thunderstorms that sound like World War IV and knock out the power,

the woman in the apartment next door who sounded like she was being choked to death

(she wasn't), the sound of the high-speed dentist's drill, the sounds of the trash trucks,

the loud annoying high-pitched voice of the happy fat girl clerk at the pharmacy who

assumes that everyone in the drug store wants to listen to her loud annoying high-pitched

voice that sounds like a dentist's high-speed drill, and that people think she must be

"special" because she works as a clerk in the pharmacy department but all it means is that

management wanted her out of sight behind a tall counter at the back of the store, and that

the huge increase in the sale of ear plugs and prescription refills by mail has nothing to do

with her loud annoying high-pitched voice, with every word "SUNG" like some Verdi

Soprano keeping her voice in shape between operas, singing over the PA system in the

store, "Aspirin is now on sale for 3 cents off on a bottle of 50,000 tablets

in Aisle 3 next to the geriatric supplies and fake powdered milk.... La La La.... La La La...

My CATS love me..... La La La......" etc. 

(Her Cats just need to be fed by a human. It's not "Love".)

What about the noise on the phone from an Answering System that says, "Please press 1

for Department 2, if you are a Bus Driver, please press 9, if you are a tree, please press

173, if you are under 10 meters tall or taller than 61 inches, please press 11 then follow

the instructions after 37 seconds or ask for operator 73 and press 1-800-333-73377141,

Extension 82QRST-##+/."    

It's all "music" to the cauliflower ears of the Caged One, with the brains of a small rock. 

I don't want it or need it. Ambient noise is noise that I can't control.

We're not talking about the delightful warblings of songbirds in the forest, or the gurgling

of a babbling brook, or the rustling of leaves in the wind.

No. Ambient noise can be anything, and it can be pleasant or unpleasant. 

Cage sounds like someone on drugs saying, "Oh wow, man. That wall is really blue!!

And it's speaking to me!!"

Right, dude. The Mentally Twisted Attention Deficit Disorder Program needs you!!

If he did anything useful in music, that tape-recorder nonsense wasn't part of it.

I seem to recall that he wrote a lengthy piece of music with no sound.

In fact, he was probably the world's foremost expert on the concept of ZERO.

Mr. [blank's] [blank] and [blank] have received [blank] in many [blanks]. 

Some of his greatest admirers invited him to perform at their locations, but refused to tell

him where they were located - in honor of ZERO and nothingness.


An item from Wikipedia:

John Cage's father invented a Diesel submarine that gave off exhaust fumes, creating a trail

of bubbles on the water, giving away the position of the submarine to the enemy, completely

defeating the concept of the "silent, invisible, stealthy under-water boat". 


Kind of like the invention of dry water, or wet towels. Hot ice cubes.

Catch-22 characters: "Oh, you can see the Major, all right, but only if he's not in."

The author was sane, but he was making fun of the insanity of the Army, at times (I guess).

The submarine example from Cage's purported father, probably better than anything, explains

the weird, inverted, non-phenomenon of the man in the Cage, the make-believe something,

trying to do something, especially with.   And also.

Why would anyone promote insanity??

Catch-22 was funny and very clever, dealing partly with craziness. But Cage was just crazy.

Not pretending to be crazy, but really crazy. Certifiable.

And furthermore....


I met Antal Dorati and Skrowaceski - Music Directors of the Minnesota Orchestra (formerly

"The Minneapolis Symphony Orchestra") in the 1950's.


In the early 1960's, I memorized 2 Mozart operas: Cosi fan Tutte and The Magic Flute.

I can't play them in my head from memory, anymore, but could do it (and did do it) years ago.


It was in the early 1960's, when I began listening to much more Mozart, that I noticed the

MTM - Mozart's Trademark Phrase. When I realized that Mozart had his special phrase,

I thought that ALL composers must have a special phrase to identify their music. Apparently,

they don't. Mozart appears to be the only composer who did it - as far as I know.


I have every piece of music that Mozart wrote and has been performed, plus a couple of

very short incipits of a measure or two (from the Verzeichniss), from his Lost works.






Work: I spent most of my working life doing technical software work with IBM mainframe

computers (System/360, 370, etc), typically running the MVS operating system, and I have

a simulator on my PC which runs MVS 3.8 from 1978.

The languages I used mostly were Assembler and COBOL.

For Y2K projects, I specialized in Assembler "Date" subroutines which converted dates from

Gregorian to Julian, and vice versa, as well as other subroutines.




Hobbies: I used an NCR390 computer in the mid-1960's, later wrote a language, a program

compiler, and a simulator for running the compiled object code on a PC, as well as writing a

large PDF manual for it. All original.

Photography: Thousands of photos.

Photo enhancement. Hundreds of photos.

Aviation: Pilot's license, VFR.

              Flew a C-119 cargo plane, once - the kind in the movie "Flight of the Phoenix" with

              James Stewart, Hardy Kruger, et al.  A strange movie with strange characters, but a

              fascinating plot. The plot: Build a new airplane out of the wreckage of the crashed

              airplane, and fly it out of the desert to civilization and safety.

              The Movie company actually built it, and a Test Pilot flew it.

              But the Test Pilot was killed on Landing, as I recall.

              I think the Plane flipped over when it touched down.

Ancient Egypt:  Yes. It's a huge topic, and it requires a lot of thought and reading.

            Those pyramids weren't built as tombs, and I don't think I ever fully believed that

            they were. They were probably built as Disaster Recovery Centers with some of the

            supplies located in the pyramids, but most buried underground, nearby, or in the

            underground rooms and tunnels - mapped and explored.  

Travel:  Europe, Mozart's Geburtshaus, Japan, Pacific Islands, Southeast Asia.

Music:  I have over 30,000 music files on my computer and probably hundreds more

on records, tapes, and CD's. The classical computer music consists of 71 composers -

from Abel to Widor. The composers of popular music on my computer and on tape, records,

and CD's are uncountable - probably in the hundreds.


That's a LOT of music!!

And at home, we listened to classical music and played it on the piano all the time.

The "Longine Whitnauer Watch Broadcast" of classical music was a weekly Sunday afternoon

favorite of my parents.  More info above.


All of this musical exposure puts me in an excellent position to be able to state with confidence

that Mozart's use of the MTM was unique, and therefore that it's his musical trademark. 



Q2: Why did you write this paper?

I wrote this paper and created this website to let Mozartians and others know about the

Trademark Phrase as well as its possible significance. I discovered years ago that apparently

 no one was aware of the MTM.


The impetus for it was an occasion when someone with a heavy background in music,

including theory and harmony, was playing a few bars of K.421 (a string quartet, 3rd movement)

on the piano, and remarked that Mozart then composed "the most amazing chords".

At that point, he played the 2 chords comprising the trademark phrase.


The entire phrase is more complex and more interesting than just those 2 chords, but the

MTM is woven into the last 2 beats of the phrase, and it was the MTM he was referring to

as being "the most amazing chords", once you convert the phrase into 2 chords.


I double-checked with him. He confirmed that it was definitely those measures, that phrase,

and those chords. He was correctly citing ONE EXAMPLE of the MTM as "the most amazing

chords", when I knew there were probably HUNDREDS of examples of those chords.



              K.421-3 - Portion with MTM Chords as a Phrase.

          The example of "the most amazing chords" cited to me.

        Actually, very common in Mozart. It's an example of the MTM.  

     (Example A11 (A-Eleven) in Long Citations, Type-1 Phrases - Standard)


I commented that Mozart's music is RIDDLED with those chords, in one form or another.

Didn't he know that?  Hadn't he ever read it somewhere?

The answer was "No".  I was very surprised, and thought EVERYONE knew it.

At least, every fan of classical music.


Therefore I decided to write a paper about it, and eventually published it on the web.


The MTM is important since it's so deeply embedded in his music, and probably represents

Mozart himself, at times. The MTM is part of who Mozart was, and represents his music

to a considerable extent.


It's much more than a signature, such as "Vincent" in a van Gogh painting, since the MTM

is part of the FABRIC of the music ("Vincent" was not part of the scene van Gogh was painting),

it is sometimes used as the theme of a piece for a few measures ("Vincent" was never part of

the theme of a van Gogh painting, to my knowledge), it was probably used to represent Mozart

himself, at times (van Gogh never used a scene to represent himself, to my knowledge, and a

signature is not a "representation" of someone - it's just a name), and so forth.


Artists have certainly painted themselves, and one or more psychotic artists painted representations

of themselves, but they didn't put symbols of themselves in almost every painting, to my knowledge.

For example, if an artist used a pocket watch to represent himself, I don't think we will find hundreds

of paintings by that artist with a pocket watch cleverly embedded in most of their works.

But with Mozart, we DO find the MTM embedded in most of his works, and I don't think he did it

to be cute or clever, or to see if people could find it. I know that Mozart could be silly, once in a while,

but he wasn't THAT silly or juvenile. He loved to have fun, but usually took his music VERY seriously. 


I originally thought that the MTM was merely a signature to identify the composer. I later realized

that it's far more meaningful than that. Mozart might have used it as a signature, in some cases,

but it has a deeper meaning, overall.


Being unaware of the MTM is to miss a significant piece of Mozart's music and his persona.

It is probably the nucleus of his music and his personality.



Q3: When did you become aware of Mozart's heavy use of this phrase?

I’ve been aware of its frequent usage in Mozart’s music since the early 1960s.



Q4: What is your opinion of this phrase?

The phrase is interesting, complex, compelling, and rewarding. It gets my attention in the way

Mozart used it. But as good as it is, some of the harmony surrounding the phrase is even

more interesting than the “trademark phrase” itself. However, it is rather fascinating that 

Mozart found so many different ways to weave this phrase into his music, and that

he invented at least several variations of it. He repeatedly picks it up, reshapes it, and

puts it back down in a seemingly endless variety of musical thoughts.


At times, it appears to exist as a period at the end of a sentence. Occasionally, it seems to be

written almost as an afterthought. But sometimes the music actually revolves around the theme

of the MTM, showing us how important the phrase must have been to Mozart. The opening of

K.594 (example A6) is such an example. The entire point of the opening seems to be to arrive

at measures 5-7 where a complex version of the MTM is played, consisting of 33 notes.

There the MTM is not simply "2 chords". The music is funneled into a massive resolution of

the preceding notes. It is part of the machinery of the music, and forms the REASON for the

existence of the first 7 measures. It's the music's goal and destination. It's the "Mount Everest"

of what feels like "the long, difficult trip", even though the trip is only a few measures.


In the case of example A11 (K.421 - one of the "Haydn Quartets"), a different feeling is evoked

where the music feels as if it's "going home" at one point (measures 28-30 of the Menuetto),

and home is so comfortable with its familiar MTM phrase to relax in. Since chamber music

was played in the home, the phrase fits in perfectly with the performing location.


Another aspect of the phrase is that of solving a problem. The first chord (the Italian 6th)

is the problem, and the 2nd chord is the solution or resolution. So the problem is presented

and solved over and over by hearing the MTM many times. But to make matters a bit

more interesting, the 2 chords are often dressed with additional notes, making the "problem"

and resolution slightly different in many cases. Added to that body of problem/resolution

material are the variations on the MTM. The variations introduce an entirely new set of

harmonic problems and resolutions, but still with satisfying results.


We know that Mozart will throw in these "problems" in his music, when possible, but we

also know that he will always solve them to our satisfaction. It is the foreknowledge that

a stress/relief pair will probably show up, and that relief from the stress will always be

supplied, that gives us additional confidence and assurance when listening to Mozart

(among other reasons for enjoying it).


Other composers may have done similar things, but Mozart was smoother and more

reassuring. And his use of using the same problem/resolution in varied forms (the MTM)

is probably unique. We expect to hear it, and we usually do. It's like seeing an actor's

name listed in a movie ad. We know that his role will be different (usually), and his lines

will be different, but we look forward to a certain style of performance from him.

So it is with the MTM. Many - if not most - of Mozart's pieces contain the MTM, and

we can look forward to hearing it being presented in novel but familiar ways.


But most of the time, the MTM feels like the logical conclusion of a musical thought,

and it feels familiar, new in some way, and always very satisfying.



Q5: Was Mozart aware that he used this phrase so often?

Yes, absolutely. There are 2 reasons for stating confidently that Mozart was aware he

used this phrase so often:

1. Mozart was not an "unconscious" composer. He had  to create, evaluate, integrate, and

often polish everything he wrote.

When you consider his phenomenal musical memory, and his high state of "musical

awareness," it would be a contradiction in terms to say he wasn't aware of how often

he used it. Mozart would then not be Mozart.  

Only a "Mozart Debunker" would claim that Mozart was unaware of how often he used  

the MTM phrase.


(There are always Idiot Debunkers of SOMETHING hanging around, trying to tear down

people who actually Accomplish things, to try to bring Great People down to their Miserable

Levels of Non-Accomplishment. It's called Jealousy, Incompetence, Uncivilized Behavior,

Partially Cheated by Nature, Pomposity, a Lack of Self Esteem, Pointless Compensation,

Lying, Childishness, Immorality, etc.  There seems to be an Endless Supply of such

Creatures.  And THEY are unaware of how often they used an intelligent phrase like the

MTM - musical or textual - because they've never created one.)   


2.Considering the variety of ways he used the phrase, as well as the variations" on the phrase,

he had to be acutely aware that he was using and re-using that phrase, and creating variations

on it.

You can't create a variation on something that you don't remember.

And if you remember it, you're aware of it. 



Q6: Why did Mozart use this phrase so often?

I don't know.

I presume he liked it, otherwise he wouldn't have used it. It's possible that he

decided to stamp his compositions with a rarely used phrase in order to create a

"musical trademark," but more likely, I think, he simply considered the phrase to be

"good music with possibilities for variations."

Even though the basic phrase is only 6 notes, it has a complex and interesting sound to it.

Similarly, Mozart was a complex and interesting composer, so he may have identified this

phrase with himself and his music. It may have been a compact way of expressing who he

was and what his music was.



Q7: How many examples exist of Mozart's use of this phrase?

      I don't know, but I would think it could number in the hundreds. The variations would

      add to that total.


      In addition to the examples cited, the phrase can be found:

      * In the first movement of the Jupiter Symphony in a passage in a minor modulation,

         where the key changes from C minor to G major.

      * It’s in the 2nd  movement of the 39th Symphony, K.543 – at least twice.

      * It’s in the opera Figaro  in Barbarina’s cavatina, number 23 ("L’ho perduta") at measures

         14 and 15 (at  “...ah chi sa dove sara?”), as well as in the last measure of the number.

      * It’s in the first  movement of the Coronation Piano Concerto, K.537.

      * It’s in the opera Idomeneo in the chorus “O voto tremendo”.

      * It's in the concert aria Ch'io mi scordi di te?, K.505, written for Nancy Storace to sing

         and Mozart to accompany on the piano.

      It’s quite common in Mozart’s music.

    Q8: When did Mozart use the phrase for the LAST time? 

      The phrase can be found in the last notes Mozart wrote not long before he died:  In the Lacrimosa

      of the Requiem, at the words "homo reus" in bar 8. For the words "homo  reus" we have

      4 chords for the chorus, in the key of D minor, with the chords identified sequentially as 1/2/3/4.

      Analyzing chords sung by the chorus for these words is obviously valid, and especially valid in

      the case of the Requiem since Mozart established the chorus as the leader - the primary "voice" -

      for this piece. The chorus (and soloists) lead the way, and the orchestra supports them, in almost

      all numbers in the Requiem. This makes perfect sense since Mozart was converting the spoken

      words of the Catholic Mass for the Dead into words that are sung rather than spoken.

      And the autograph copy of the Lacrimosa proves it: 4 vocal lines and a Basso line, with no

      orchestral parts yet added. The focus was almost always on the chorus and soloists, with the

      orchestra taking a secondary, supporting role. 


      This brief analysis is therefore not involved with the orchestral harmony, but with the music sung

      by the primary, leading element: The chorus. 


      Note that Mass for the Dead is divided into 2 parts in the Catholic Church:

      The "Ordinary" and parts added for a Mass for the dead.

      The parts below show the Ordinary in green, and the additional parts for the dead in gray. 

      The Lacrimosa (Number 8) is part of the additional portion for the DEAD.


       (My Numbering)


       1.  Introit (Requiem)  

       2.  Kyrie        

       3.  Dies irae  

       4.  Tuba mirum  

       5.  Rex tremendae     

       6.  Recordare              

       7.  Confutatis              

       8.  Lacrimosa   ******  

       8a.  Amen  (sketch by Mozart)

       9.   Domine Jesu        

      10.  Hostias  

      11.  Sanctus  (11a. Sanctus  11b. Hosanna)  

      12.  Benedictus  (12a. Benedictus  12b. Hosanna)

      13.  Agnus Dei  

      14.  Communio: Lux aeterna 

      15.  Cum Sanctis tuis


      ● Ordinary part of a Mass (Green)

      ● Parts added for a Mass for the Dead (Gray)


     Mozart distinguished between these 2 parts by writing music for the Ordinary which was

     more neutral and less impassioned, and writing music for the rest of the piece which was

     more fervent. The Lacrimosa is certainly more fervent.


              The Lacrimosa Text 

     Lacrimosa dies illa, 

     qua resurget ex favilla

     judicandus homo reus.

     Huic ergo parce, Deus
     Pie Jesu Domine
     Dona eis requiem, Amen.


     The music, below, is from the Lacrimosa phrase "...judicandus homo reus".



   (Chorus - SATB - Requiem Lacrimosa - homo reus)


    B-D-G-G' ---> Bb-F-D-G# ---> A-F-D-A ---> A-E-A-C# 
ho      -      mo            re     -     us.
       1                  2                 3               4



      The conjugation of Chords 2 and 4 follows, performing the usual compression and interpolation

     (in 4 steps) to create the Trademark Phrase.


   Chord-2. mo   Bb-F-D-G# ---- Bb--D-G#    The F is compressed out.

   Chord-2. mo   Bb--D-G#   ---- Bb-D-G#     The D/G# are moved down.


   Chord-4. us  A-E-A-C#  ---- A-A-C#       The E is compressed out.

   Chord-4. us  A-A-C#   ---- A-[C#]-A     The C# is interpolated 

                                             down 1 octave.



        Final result created from chords 2 and 4 above.

      This is the Trademark Phrase:

      Bb-D-G# --->  A-C#-A      

         Italian-6th                   Modified-major-triad            

      Chord-2 compressed.          Chord-4 compressed and interpolated.                       

      Chord 2a - mo             Chord 4a - us



        ORIGINAL chords 2 and 4 of "homo reus" as notes played sequentially   

               Bb-F-D-G# ----> A-E-A-C#


        ORIGINAL chords 2 and 4 of "homo reus"   

               Bb-F-D-G# ----> A-E-A-C#


        MTM, chords 2a and 4a derived from "homo reus"  

               Bb-D-G# ----> A-C#-A




  After compression and interpolation, these "homo reus" notes from Chords 2 and 4 form

    MTM chords - the Trademark phrase.


    Note that the ORIGINAL chords sound MUCH better than the compressed and interpolated version.

    The latter version was created simply to illustrate that the original music contains an MTM.

    Obviously, Mozart knew how to write "good" music befitting the ambience, etc.

    Removing 2 notes and moving some notes down an octave results in less satisfying sounding

    chords, but illustrates the presence of the MTM. 


    Strictly speaking, chords 2 and 4 (or 2a and 4a) do not form an MTM due to the intervening

    Chord-3 (A-F-D-A) which renders this example slightly imperfect as a Trademark Phrase, but

    it's very close, interrupted by only 1 syllable (1 chord).

    It's as close as you can get to an MTM with this musical phrase, and it's only 1 chord removed

    (almost "1 beat" you could say) from an MTM. Close enough.


  Click on the speakers to hear the sound clips in MIDI format (no words).


           Lacrimosa - Homo Reus - Chorus Only    (6 seconds).


             Lacrimosa - Qua resurget - Chorus Only   (23 seconds).


              Lacrimosa - Beginning thru Homo Reus   (46 seconds).

              Chorus and orchestra (Piano) - 8 measures.

             (Possibly the last music Mozart wrote before he died).     



           The Text as Written Prior to Huic Ergo  

       Lacrimosa dies illa, 

       qua resurget ex favilla

       judicandus homo reus.




              The Text as Sung

              (syllabified by note) 

     La-cri-mo-sa  di-es  il-la, 

     qua  re---sur---get   ex   fa---vi---lla

     ju-di-can-dus  ho-mo re-us.




            Approximate English translation

            through "judicandus homo reus"

    That day shall be full of tears 

    When rising from the ashes,

    Ready to be judged,  

    Stands the guilty man. 



      What powerful music!  Mozart, as usual, knew exactly what he was doing.

       From the Intro to "Lacrimosa" to "Reus", it's full of:





        the steady pacing of a funeral dirge,


        the frightening realization of the situation,







        doom, and



       as we hear Man slowly rising from the ashes....

       walking slowly towards the Judge Most High....

       step by step.... 

       one hesitant step at a time....

       with fear and trepidation....

       in the Courtroom Most High....

       to receive his life's Final Judgment....

       on this Day of Tears.

       This day of Lacrimosa.


      And in this music that he composed (possibly the last), for the most important moment that

      a human being will face, what do we find in the last few chords? We find an MTM, altered

      only slightly with an intervening chord (the minor chord A-F-D-A).  

      Mozart put his musical stamp on some of the last notes he wrote.



      It is believed by some Mozart scholars that the Lacrimosa was not the last number

      in the Requiem Mozart worked on, since he had other, more creative tasks to do in
      the piece, first. However, it is apparently among the last numbers he worked on
      before expiring, and certainly the most visually depressing, with the score breaking off

      into empty paper after only 8 bars.


      And it easily COULD have been the last notes he wrote, since we do have the evidence

      for that conclusion. Do the scholars have better evidence? See the autograph score, below.

      The evidence that the Lacrimosa was, or probably was, the last number he worked on is

      right here on this page.


      And one could also ask, "What would be more important than writing the Lacrimosa??"

      The entire Requiem is beautiful, wonderful, inspired, majestic, deeply moving, and so forth,

      and the Lacrimosa stands out among the numbers as one of the most inspired and moving.

      What tasks would be MORE important for him to drop it and work on something else,

       having made a good start with 8 measures?? 


      I can't read Mozart's mind, but why would he stop working on such a powerful number,

      then go work on something else?? There is one possibility: The sadness of the material, coupled

      with Mozart's own sickness. We will probably never know.


      It may also have been the last portion of music Mozart performed, purportedly having sung

      part of it with friends at his house, only hours before he died. According to one story,

      after singing the opening notes of the Lacrimosa, Mozart began crying uncontrollably, 

      and was unable to continue singing the rest of the Requiem with his friends.

      (Wouldn't YOU do the same??)  

      11 hours later,  he was dead.


      We don't know if this story is true or not:  he may have been too sick and weak to do any

      singing, and some have said that he was VERY sick and weak.

      Some people say that the story is pure fiction.

      But since his condition apparently vacillated somewhat between having good days and

      bad days, good moments and bad moments, it might be true. His illness, although grave,

      was not a "constant" condition, and those who say the story is fiction might not be taking

      his vacillating condition into account.

      Rheumatic Fever does that:  The Patient's strength VARIES.

      Mozart's body was not an electric machine receiving lower and lower voltage from a wall plug

      on a daily basis. He was a human being - a far more complex biological and thinking being,

      with physical and mental ups and downs, like everyone else. 

      Especially with Rheumatic Fever.   


      So, the original pages of Lacrimosa music say that the Lacrimosa was, or probably was, the

      last number Mozart wrote, and his vacillating condition says that the story of his singing some

      of the Lacrimosa, then breaking down and crying uncontrollably, COULD be true, since he

      had more energy on some days. 


      In fact, if the story is true, it might even have hastened his death with all that exertion and

      depressing emotion. We will probably never know.


      We don't know if it happened that way or not, but the evidence for it is stronger than the

      evidence against it, and the evidence against it is weak or non-existent.


      Mozart's emotional state MIGHT also be related to the Death of his Mother and the

      Fear of God's Judgement.  MAYBE  Not certain. 

      Leopold often accused Mozart of killing his Mother through neglect and dallying with the

      Weber Girls while she was alone in Paris.

      And Mozart probably IS partially or slightly guilty (but Leopold and Bad Luck, etc, are

      bigger factors), so Mozart might have had an Attack of Conscience when singing the

      Lacrimosa with Friends, AND when struggling to Finish it - which is why most of it is


      He knew he was sick, and he might have felt partially guilty for his Mother's Death, AND

      he knew that his own Death was a possibility, although I don't think he thought he would

      die that night. Only that he MIGHT Die, and he WOULD Die some day.  What then??

      How would HE explain his Mother's Death, alone in a cheap Paris Hotel Room??   

      Leopold had more to answer for, but Wolfgang did Dally.  He was caught between a

      Rock and a Hard place, having met such a wonderful family, and potentially the Greatest

      Soprano in all of Europe!!  What a Quagmire.


      The suppressed feeling of "It wasn't my fault" might have given way to:

      "Her Death WAS partly my fault, but there were extenuating circumstances, what was I

      supposed to do?, I met Aloysia, but now I might be heading to the Judgement Day to be

      judged by a stern, strict, and frightening God who might not forgive my dallying, which

      might have hastened the Death of my own Mother, and instead of being rewarded for

      my good works, I'm about to face the wrath of God who is going to punish me for what

      I did, and unfairly send me to the place where there shall be Weeping and Gnashing of

      Teeth forever, with Endless Tears. Endless Lacrimosa."


      Why could this be a reasonable possibility rather than something far-fetched??

      Because Mozart might never have fully "processed" the situation in his own mind, and

      "Leopold the Swamp Skunk" blamed Wolfgang for her Death whenever the opportunity

      arose, which probably made her Death weigh more and more heavily on Wolfgang's

      mind, creating more and more resistance by Wolfgang, and pressurizing his emotions

      which finally exploded uncontrollably that day - along with other Feelings.


      It's all Speculation, but we know that parts of this situation are True.

      We have the Proof that Mozart did not finish writing the Lacrimosa, managing to compose

      only EIGHT PARTIAL MEASURES with the Orchestral parts partially missing.

      In any case, it might have been ONE of SEVERAL Factors on his mind that afternoon

      while singing the Piece.

      And we need to keep in mind that Rheumatic Fever causes increased emotional responses

      in people, so his illness was probably another factor in his emotional breakdown.        


      What about "hunches"? They can be useful, and I'm not opposed to them if they make sense -

      especially if we have the evidence of the autograph score for the "Last number" theory.

      My hunch, combined with some evidence, is that it's all true: The Lacrimosa was the last

      number Mozart composed for the Requiem (partially composed), that he sang part of the

      Requiem with his friends (an exhausting task), and broke down after singing a few notes of

      the Lacrimosa.  From an emotional point of view, the Lacrimosa represented reality more-so

      than any other number. It was highly personal - far more personal than the Dies Irae or Kyrie

      or Sanctus, etc. He was very sick. The music was crying, and he was crying for himself.

      I don't blame him. He was only 35 years old, and things were looking up - until he got sick. 


      This is probably some of the saddest and most powerful music Mozart ever wrote, and one of

      the saddest stories in musical history. Probably the greatest genius who ever lived, composing

      better and better music, with more operas to write, more symphonies, more chamber music,

      more concertos, a finished Requiem, dead at age 35. It's a tragedy of monumental proportions.      


      As we hear the simulated teardrops in the music of the Lacrimosa, one could almost say that

      the music was crying for Mozart - as well it should.



                                                 Lacrimosa  -  Measures 6-8 + 9-10       


      ex favilla judicandus homo reus    huic ergo parce deus



               Mozart (6-8)               Somebody else (9-10).

                                           Joseph Eybler??



           A portion of Mozart's autograph score of the Requiem,

           showing the last 3 measures of the unfinished Lacrimosa    

           (measures 6-8), before it was completed by others.

           We see the words "ex favilla judicandus homo reus"

           for SATB, and an additional Basso line (instrumental) at

           the bottom (Bass or Organ). 5 Lines - 3 Measures.

           The phrase "huic ergo parce deus" which follows was not

           written by Mozart, nor was that music used in the final


           The source of the rest of the music is unknown.

           Possibly from "scraps of paper", possibly from verbal

           instructions to Suessmayr, possibly from the creative

           minds of the completers, possibly from all of the above.      


           Lacrimosa - Beginning thru Homo Reus  (46 seconds).  Piano. MIDI.



     (Verdi's version of the Lacrimosa, by comparison, is shapeless, undefined, meandering,

     operatic rather than sacred (this isn't an opera!!), pointless, meaningless, sung partly

     by the blob of nameless towns-people on stage who have wandered out of their homes

     to participate in singing something, with shades of Fiddler on the Roof music, all

     representing nothing at all.

     I guess Verdi misunderstood the assignment. This is a church service - a Catholic Mass for

     the Dead, performed in Latin, the Lacrimosa, describing what happens, and why that day

     will be a Day of Tears when they arise from the ashes to meet their Maker and face their

     Final Judgment - not a social gathering of people who just like to sing whenever they've

     finished eating their spaghetti and hear singing in the street....)     



Q9: How many pieces by Mozart have you heard?

I have almost every piece Mozart wrote (that isn't lost) including a brief incipit from his

catalog (no recording available for that one), and have listened to all the pieces at least once

over the past 50 years.

It includes the earliest works, his first composition, his first choral composition, etc.

The formats are recordings, MP3's, and MIDI's.



Q10: How many pieces by other composers have you heard?

I haven’t counted the number of pieces by others which I’ve heard or own, but in addition

to a large Mozart collection, I have the usual collection of music by other composers.



Bach, Beethoven, Brahms, Hayden, Handel, Vivaldi, Purcell, Chopin, Ravel, Debussy,

Wagner, Hindemith, Bizet, Verdi, Mendelssohn, Tchaikovsky, Prokofiev, Strauss, Copland,

Orff, etc.



Jazz, blues, "popular music" of the 1940s and 1950s, the Beatles, Abba, some New Age,

some show tunes, Brazilian dance music, the marches of John Philip Sousa, German drinking

songs, etc), movie themes (North by Northwest, Psycho, Picnic, Gone with the Wind,

Young at Heart, Dr. Zhivago, James Bond, Grease, My Fair Lady, Casablanca, Never On Sunday,

Black Orpheus, 2001-A Space Odyssey, etc), some TV themes, Christmas music,

national anthems, some church hymns, etc.

The use of the MTM in such music is EXTREMELY RARE or entirely absent - usually absent.


I have pieces by Mozart's predecessors and contemporaries - Agrell, Allegri, Gasparini, Pergolesi,

Salieri, Joseph Haydn, Michael Haydn, Hummel, Eybler, etc.


I have 1 piece by Mozart's son, Franz Xaver Mozart (Sonata for Cello and Piano, Opus 19, in 

E Major).   It's not bad.


I also have pieces by Mozart's father, Leopold Mozart (the Toy Symphony and the Sleigh Ride).

(It's now disputed whether Leopold wrote pieces attributed to him, but since he had copies of the

music in his possession, he either wrote them or liked them. So, if he didn't write them, he probably

wished he had.)


I also have music by Sussmayr and Mozart's pupils. The MTM can be heard in the music of

Sussmayr and his pupils, on occasion, though not normally in music by the other composers,

except for some music by JS Bach.


It's almost unique to Mozart, and certainly no other composer used it as often.

Some composers - perhaps many composers - apparently never used it.


Linking the phrase with Mozart is proper. Other composers who used it did so rarely, and many

composers NEVER used it. The only representative of the Trademark Phrase - those 2 chords -

is Mozart. No one else qualifies.


And it's probably the only musical item utilized by Mozart which can be quantified and proven,

and shown to exist in many, many pieces - even in his last piece (the Requiem), and even in the

last notes he wrote while he still had the breath and strength to write music. 

The Requiem contains additional MTM's, but the Lacrimosa is its most poignant use in that piece

and in all of Mozart's music.

How was he judged (judicandus homo reus)? Hopefully as "Not Guilty" - to say the least.



Q11: How can I locate more examples in Mozart’s music?

Listen to the music, or write a computer program to search for the phrase - if Mozart’s music

has been computerized. But I wouldn’t recommend that anyone listen to Mozart with the sole

purpose of trying to locate this phrase (other than as a short experiment). Doing so would

probably diminish the listening experience considerably, focusing on one tree instead of the

forest. If you hear it, enjoy it.



Q12: How can one determine if it exists in the works of other composers?

Listen to the music, or write a computer program to search for the phrase - if the world's music

has been computerized.



Q13: Did other composers use their own "Trademark Phrase"?

I don't know the answer, but an expert in music could probably supply the answer to that


It would probably be accurate to say that many composers have a "trademark sound" or style,

such as Bach, Chopin, etc. But an intentional or unintentional trademark phrase would be a

different matter.



Q14: How does this "trademark phrase" information enhance my knowledge of music in

general or  Mozart in particular?

Knowing this "trademark" information can shed some light on Mozart, his music, and one

aspect of his method of composing. If the trademark phrase represents Mozart, at times,

then we can "know" Mozart, to some degree, by appreciating the phrase. If you can describe

the phrase, you can describe Mozart.



Q15: Did Mozart use any other trademark phrases?

Not that I am aware of. 

However, Mozart once used a musical metaphor to represent an entire piece, and this

point relates to his use of the trademark phrase, at times.


The Organ Fantasia in F minor, K.608  is a highly chromatic and often dissonant piece

written for an oversized "music box on a timer" at Count Josef Deym's wax museum in

Vienna. The particular "scene" for which this piece was written is unknown (and Mozart

 might have ignored the scene when he wrote the music).


Considering how the piece sounds, coupled with the fact that it was written for a music box

(or mechanical organ), the piece could be called "An Ode to Technology" or "The Machine


We know that Mozart had an interest in the technology of pianos and other musical

instruments. He wasn't very impressed with the sound of Count Deym's little music boxes,

but he might have been impressed with their technology and the future possibilities of

technology in general.


The many 4-note turns in the piece remind one of a spring being wound, as would

presumably have been necessary for the machine to play the music.


And at least one passage resembles a "knitting machine" or some other mechanical

device, as it obediently clicks off the notes it was programmed to play, becoming

increasingly complicated. 




           194                                                195                                     196


      197                        198                    199

                         K.608: 6 Measures - 194-199



                  A piano is used in the Sound Clip below instead of an organ for clarity of notes.

                  Click the Speaker.


                    K.608 Sound Clip - 6 Measures:  M194 - 199    Machine-like Music (Piano version)

                         Plus 1 final chord at M-200.



     K.608 Description - 4 Measures: M195-198.

     "Machine Music".

     "The Machine Speaks".

     "An Ode to Technology". 


     Clicks, Gears, Timing Pulses, Precision,  Inter-Weave Track,

     Normal Notes, Strange Notes, Goal-Directed Certainty. 

     As if it's The Machine that's being DESCRIBED by the Music -

     not just Music PLAYED by the Machine.

     Played by and Described by and Describing.

     It's just a Theory, but that's the way it sounds.    




   click  click  click  click  click  click  click  click  

   PULSE         PULSE         PULSE         PULSE 

   Lower Spindle Assembly 1 Step.




   click  click  click  click  click  click  click  click  

   PULSE         PULSE         PULSE         PULSE 

   Lower Spindle Assembly 1 Step.




   click  click  click  click  click  click  click  click  

          click  click  click  click  click  click  click  

   PULSE         PULSE         PULSE         PULSE 

   Lower Spindle Assembly 6 Steps.




   click  click  click  click  click  click  click  click  

   click  click  click  click  click  click  click  click  

   PULSE         SA-UP-4       PULSE 


(8 clicks per phrase).



The notes MIGHT just represent ordinary music, but there's a certain clickety-clack

sound to those phrases that sounds very machine-like - like a knitting machine or something.


And its machine-like nature is enhanced by a smattering of dissonance - just enough to

make the listener sit up and notice - to notice that this is a "different" kind of piece. 


That phrase is beautiful, wonderfully complex, a masterpiece of intertwined themes, and

might also represent the machine at work with its cylinders, pins, and gears, rather than the

scene or object it was supposed to be depicting. But we don't know what the scene or object

was, and a depiction of the machine producing the music does make musical sense. 

Perhaps it was that machine itself being depicted (the music box / mechanical organ), or perhaps

it was another machine in this new age of machines and music boxes - something that was

all the rage in Europe, and had become the "latest thing".


Description of the Machine's Statement:

































The Entire Scale in K.608:  A Musical Metaphor. 

(Music and Audio are shown below).

At the 3rd and 4th measures from the end (measures 219 and 220), the right hand

plays every note in the 12-tone scale, one at a time, but not in "sequence".

It is an interesting bit of information since it could be a symbolic statement of

chromaticism itself at the end of a highly chromatic piece.


In other words, Mozart may be saying something like this:

"Throughout this piece you have heard a great deal of chromaticism.

Now I will give you the entire (chromatic) 12-tone scale in 2 measures,

one note at a time, as a kind of musical metaphor for this piece."


If the ears didn't catch it, the analysis will:  Mozart hit every note of the 12-tone scale in

measures 219 - 220, in the short space of 5 beats. 


There are other aspects to this 25-note phrase which are interesting to speculate about,

but which unfortunately slide into the weird and bizarre. However, let us remember that

composing for a mechanical device is a rather strange situation - but one that Mozart accepted,

and that we may analyze and speculate about.


An interesting aspect of this 25-note phrase is its lack of Mozartian melody - but then,

the entire piece is also lacking in typical Mozartian melody. While K.608 is an immensely

powerful, majestic, and complex piece, it is also a somewhat "cold" and "mechanical" piece,

possibly in keeping with the fact that Mozart was writing for a mechanical organ. K.594

and K.616, also written for the mechanical organ,  have at least *some* melody and

warmth to them.  K.608 is lean on Mozartian melody - at least for the first and last

movements - and has no warmth in those two movements.


The first and last movements may stand alone in the Mozartian literature as the only music

Mozart wrote with little or no warmth, feeling, "humanity", personality, or memorable melody.

They feel filled with power and intellect but devoid of "feelings of the heart".

While some "machines" in modern times may engender feelings of affection, this piece of

machinery remains cool, aloof, remote, and indifferent.


It is a vision of a superior being with a brilliant and powerful mind, but with no evidence

of a conscience or the "milk of human kindness".


Adding to its non-human nature is the fact that it's unplayable by a human being since it was

apparently written in 4 staves. It can only be played by some kind of machine, or 2 organists or

pianists - not by an individual person. (Many recordings of this piece have been made by

individual performers, but it seems impossible that all the notes were played).


So, the 25-note phrase at the end of the piece summarizes 2 aspects of the piece:

1. The chromaticism of the piece.

2. The robotic, machine-like nature of the piece and its lack of normal Mozartian melody

    (often beautiful and powerful, but typically cold and emotionless). 


To expand on point number 2 above, the 25-note phrase might be partially saying, "I'm a

brilliant and powerful machine. Why would you expect me to play a piece that sounds as

if it were written by a mere human with melodies that humans can relate to? The recap

may be tuneless to you, but it represents who I am. Be satisfied that I have entertained

you with my vast intellect. Now go away." 


Another interpretation might be this: There's a hint of brainlessness in the 25-note phrase,

as if the machine might have been saying,

"You told me to hit all 12 notes of the scale in this recap, and I did.

What did you expect? A Bach Invention? If you have any complaints, take them

to the management. I just follow orders."


Such an attitude reminds one of an idiot savant, and Mozart MIGHT have been trying to

portray that image in the 25-note phrase. And an "idiot savant" is probably a reasonable

description of the music box when programmed with Mozart's music.

With the 25-note phrase, Mozart might have been saying, "I'm the savant; the machine

is the idiot. Just look at what happened when I cut it loose in this 25-note recap... It hit

all the notes in the 12-tone scale as I told it to do, but it forgot to create a good melody."


For that matter, the fact that Mozart was writing this majestic piece for a machine may

have given him a loophole to write music so awesome that the average music listener

wouldn't be able to appreciate it. He may have viewed this as a great composing opportunity

since he had the "plausible deniability" excuse  of being able to say that it was written for

a machine - not for a person to play, and perhaps not for most people to appreciate.

So, if they couldn't appreciate it, he could always say "It's just machine music - not normal

music...", concealing the fact that he apparently put all of his intellect into composing this

incredible piece.  And what grand music it is - with the possible exception of the last measures!





From the Bärenreiter score, "Drei Stücke für die Orgel".

Arranged by Friedrich Brinkmann

         219                         220                    221    

            K.608: Measures 219  220  221


   K608--12-Tones-Piano-MIDI      K608--12-Tones-Organ-MIDI

                        Click to hear sound clips



 (The chart below might require Internet Explorer to display correctly).



                     K.608: Measures 219 and 220

            Phrase near the end of the piece (2 measures, 25 notes)

                          Beats and Notes


          Match the Numbers and Colors from Line-2 to Line-1.

          1=A  2=Bb  3=B  4=C  etc.     

          All 12 Tones Are Used in 2 Measures - 219 and 220.



 *Line-1: Entire Phrase.

 M-219                                                  M-220

 1             2            3            4              1           2         3

 Ab-C--E--G    F--Ab-D--F   Eb-Gb-B--D   C--Eb-A--C     Bb-Db-F#-A  G-Bb-E-G  F 

 Ab-C--E--G    F--Ab-D--F   Eb-Gb-B--D-  C -Eb-A--C     Bb-Db-F#-A  G-Bb-E-G  F 

 12  4   8  11     9       6        7  10  3               1          2   5




 The 12-tone Chromatic Scale:




 1   2   3   4   5   6  7   8   9  10  11  12









    *Line-1: Entire Phrase (All Notes Up To M-220-1 First 2 Notes).

    M-219                                                   M-220

    12  4  8  11  9  12  6  9  7  10  3  6  4  7  1  4      2   5



    The 12-tone Chromatic Scale:

    1  2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9  10  11  12

    A  Bb  B   C   Db  D   Eb  E   F  Gb  G   Ab




  Is this a metaphor for the piece (Highly Chromatic)??

  An identity of the player?? 

  In this phrase, Mozart hit all 12 notes of the scale, in a semi-tuneless

  fashion, in 2 measures of K.608 near the end of the piece which was

  written for a kind of "robot" - a machine which played music using rotating

  drums and pins.

  (Not a true "Robot", but something similar.) 


  Two meanings to the metaphor seem very plausible:


     Meaning 1.

        Chromaticism: All 12 notes of the scale are played, representing the

        highly chromatic nature of the piece we have just heard.


     Meaning 2.

        "I'm a machine": The phrase is semi-tuneless - robotic - machine-like,

        representing the "source" of the music: the mechanical organ (a music

        box on a large scale).


  Phrase: 25 notes. 

  Note span utilized to hit all 12 notes: 18 notes of the Phrase.




  *Line-1: Entire Phrase (All Notes Up To M-220-1 First 2 Notes).

    M-219                                                   M-220

    12  4  8  11  9  12  6  9  7  10  3  6  4  7  1  4      2   5



    The 12-tone Chromatic Scale:

    1  2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9  10  11  12

    A  Bb  B   C   Db  D   Eb  E   F  Gb  G   Ab





(Please don't misunderstand: I think this piece is a majestic, powerful, awesome, domineering,

supremely confident, dazzling, harmonically satisfying, and an amazing tour de force unlike anything

else Mozart wrote.

Just because it sometimes sounds like Mozart is describing a complex machine with his music does not

mean it's inferior or "bad" or trivial music. Not at all. After all, it's "Mozart", and it's even "LATE 


He apparently used all his intellect in writing this Masterpiece, and we're fortunate to have it.

This is music from "The Powers That Be" in Heaven, and they are supremely confident and powerful.

Whatever Mozart was describing, it certainly had at least 2 attributes: Power and Intellect.


Even the 25-note phrase at the end where all 12 notes of the scale are played in about 2 measures shows

an amazing intellect - even if it was Mozart's intellect programming the machine to play his music.

The only twist in that phrase is that it's semi-tuneless. But orders are orders, and the machine "followed

orders" to play all 12 notes of the scale in a short span of notes. Other than that piece of curiosity where

Mozart summarizes the piece and reveals the identity of its player (it's a machine - not a person), making

the situation somewhat confusing with a brainless machine programmed by a genius who let out all the stops

for this piece, it's an amazing, complex, "deep" piece of music composed by a genius.)


If Mozart could create a 25-note musical metaphor apparently summarizing a piece, he could

certainly create a 2-chord, 6-note phrase to be used as his trademark, if he so desired. 


While Mozart's trademark phrase said "This is who I am: I'm Mozart", to some extent, the last few

measures of K.608 also said "This is who I am: I'm a machine", referring to the music box / mechanical

organ which had just played the piece for the visitors.

I guess you could say that it was the only machine with a kind of "trademark phrase", even though

it was only used once. Or perhaps "an identifying phrase" to be more precise.


Mozart not only expressed his thoughts and emotions with music, he expressed his music

with musical symbols, as in the example above, making some of his music "symbols of music and



So, at a minimum, we have the following musical symbols in Mozart's music:

   1. The MTM, sometimes used by Mozart as a symbol for his music.

   2. The MTM, sometimes used by Mozart as a symbol for himself (K.505, etc). 

   3. The K.608 25-note phrase used as a symbol for the piece and the machine that played it

       (intense chromaticism and the rather tuneless, machine-like nature of the piece - a piece played

        by a machine).

   4. The weeping violins of the Lacrimosa.

   5. The halting steps of the "qua resurget" of the Lacrimosa.

   *  And HUNDREDS and HUNDREDS more examples of symbolism in Mozart's music.


In other words, Mozart used symbolism almost everywhere.

The MTM is just one part of it - sometimes used as a symbol, sometimes not, but an important

and even crucial part of his music.  




           * Additional notes on K.608. 

         This piece could be called "The Machine Speaks!!" 

         Roughly similar to "It's alive!!", but the machine is doing the speaking, tunelessly

         hitting all 12 notes of the scale in less than 2 measures (25 notes), as Mozart

         apparently makes the non-human machine (the music box), which was a kind of

         robot of its day, come alive in a frightening tour de force of cold, passionless,

         indifferent, and independent intellect, its reins tossed off in an act of rebellion,

         and uncontrollable by its creator.


         Maybe he did it as a joke, out of boredom or annoyance at writing organ music for

         a music box, where he causes the machine to unexpectedly take over and become the

         composer (it's possible).


         He gives us a hint that the machine is apparently speaking or participating in this

         composition with all the earlier dissonance and clickety-clack of the drum and pins. 

         This "An Organ Piece for a Clock", as Mozart put it, seems to be less about music

         for a Wax Museum tableau, than about the clock, itself - the Mechanical Organ  --

         the Machine.

         For example, he didn't call it "An Organ Piece for the Clockmaker", or "An Organ

         Piece for King xyz at Mueller's Museum", etc. It was a piece for a "clock" - a

         Mechanical Organ, the focus being on the instrument, not the tableau (or displayed

         item), or the commissioner of the piece (Mueller). 


         The actual wording seems fairly unimportant and even trivial, until you hear the piece. 

         Then you sit up and pay attention, and wonder why it was written, and who or what

         it represents.

         Perhaps "Music Of the Machine, By the Machine, and For the Machine" would

         describe it.


         In other words, the tableau or object this piece was written for, **MAY** have been

         the Mechanical Organ itself, as far as Mozart was concerned - not some scene built

         by the proprietor of the Wax Museum.  

         As if the machine was saying the Following (perhaps as a JOKE by Mozart):






























         If you think most of it is un-emotional and not typically Mozartian, you're right!! 

         Being written for a mechanical organ (a large "music box") would not seem to dictate

         that it be different from any other organ piece, but Mozart apparently saw the situation

         differently - at least for the 1st and 3rd movements (not the 2nd movement, which is

         warm, gentle, and peaceful), and may have "brought the machine to life", perhaps

         seeing that it made more sense to do that, than to try to fit organ music to some

         tableau, object, or statue - technically fulfilling the commission, but doing so in his

         unique "Mozartian" way, perhaps finding the assignment too boring to complete

         as requested. "Bringing the machine to life" would be funny and imaginative, and

         would allow Mozart to "let out all the stops", as it were, taking real pleasure in the

         composing of this magnificent piece, and making some money in the process.  


         The Piece is mostly a cool, aloof, remote, cold, passionless, indifferent, powerful,

         complex, amazing, strange, unrestrained, terrifying, fantastic, majestic, wonderful,

         brilliant, and unique piece - written in 4 staves for a machine with 3 hands and

         at least 2 feet. 

         We're lucky to have it!!



Copyright ©  2002, David E. Morton


Contact: Dmorton965 at


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