Mozart's Musical TradeMark



 And Many Other Mozart Topics


By David E. Morton






                                        Mozart's Musical Trademark is:

                                                 *     A Phrase Mozart used Often 

                                                 *     A Variation on a Theme         

                                                 *     A Symbol for his Music      

                                                 *     A Symbol for Mozart - the Man

                                         *   A Musical Icon of Mozart

                                         *   Mozart in the Form of Music

                                         *   Mozart as a Sound Bite 

                                         *   A Window into Mozart's Mind 

                                         *   Part of Mozart's Composing Style 

                                         *   An Important part of Mozart's Music  



                                          It's Almost Everywhere!!


And We PROVE Its Existence And Usage, Here. 

It's not a THEORY.             



This is: 

This is: 



                                                         Last updated in December, 2017

                                                               (Meistermusik, Sanctus)  



              Contact: (Mozart topics)  or...

                 (Main email)


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On the Web since 2001.



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   This Website contains Definitions and Citations of the MTM:

   *  The Definition  of the Trademark Phrase (this page). 

       2 Types:  "Standard" and "Variations"  (Type-1 and Type-2). 

   *  16 Long Citations   (with sheet music and many audio clips).

           Click on  "Type-1 Phrases"  for Standard Phrases.

           Click on  "Type-2 Phrases"  for Variations.   

   *  65 Short Citations.


   *  Several other Wide-Ranging and interesting topics related to





   New Information About Mozart:

   This website contains some New information about Mozart, with

   some of it supplied by Dr. Michael Lorenz (and already documented

   by Lorenz on his website - simply repeated here).  

   Elaborated further within. 


   The original purpose of this Website - "Mozart's Musical Trademark" -

   has been greatly expanded.

   Discussion and Commentary of various subjects has evolved into some

   Discoveries - New Information presented under various topics, as well

   as presenting and utilizing some of the discoveries made by Michael




                            New Information About Mozart   

                           A Summary of Most of the Points.

                                           Click to Read




 My Opinion of THIS Website:

 * There is a LOT of good information here!!

    The "Meistermusik/Masonic Funeral Music" article is TOO LONG.

    Sorry. My apologies.

    I should have had a Plan and an Outline, but I didn't.

    Cutting it down to a smaller size with a better organization has proven to be

    very difficult!!    

    But if you can wade through the entire article, you should be able to learn quite

    a few things, in my opinion, and gain some new perspectives on Mozart's

    Life and his Music, from about 1785 forward, with information stitched together

    from multiple sources. 

    But even with a Plan and an Outline, the Meistermusik Article still would

    have been quite LENGTHY.  There's a lot of information in it. 

    The other articles are shorter.      






   Just a reminder: 

   Age 3:  Mozart started tinkering with the Piano.

   Age 4:  He started taking Piano Lessons.

   Age 5:  He began composing music.  

   Child:  He taught himself how to play the Violin.

   And he composed music for about 30 years. 


   Age 4: 

   He started taking Piano Lessons from his Father because

   his older sister was taking Piano Lessons from the Father, and

   Wolfgang apparently didn't want to be "Left out of the Loop".

   The Father, Leopold, agreed to give Wolfgang Piano Lessons,

   more or less as a joke, not thinking that Wolfgang would actually

   be able to learn how to play the Piano at such a young age.    

   But Wolfgang learned rapidly and even memorized Piano Pieces.


   Leopold apparently intended to teach Wolfgang how to play the

   Violin, at some point (and did so, later), and gave Wolfgang a

    "Toy Violin" as a present.

    Wolfgang surprised his Father and everyone else by teaching

    himself how to play the Violin - at least, in a rudimentary fashion,

    before Leopold had given him any lessons.

    And it was Herr Schactner - not Leopold - who gave Wolfgang his

    first opportunity to play the Violin in a Quartet of Players at the

    Mozart home, when Wolfgang was a child.

    In the movie "Amadeus", the scene with Herr Shactner  and the

    others is wonderful. 


    Leopold had said No to Wolfie, he couldn't play with the Group

    (the Quartet of Players), not even the Second Violin Part, since

    he'd never had a Lesson.

    Little Wolfgang complained that you don't need to have any Violin

    Lessons to play the SECOND Violin Part (the easier Part).

    Leopold still said No, and little Wolfgang toddled off, Crying, and

    carrying his little Toy Violin back to his Room, perplexed that his

    Iron-Fisted Lunkhead Father didn't seem to believe that he had

    taught himself how to play the Violin.


    He had learned to Play the Piano rapidly - at a young Age!!

    He had Memorized the Playing of Piano Pieces!!

    He was as good or better than his older Sister on the Piano!!

    Why was it so hard to believe that he had taught himself how

    to play the Violin in a rudimentary fashion??

    Why did Leopold DOUBT this Honest and Brilliant Little Kid??

    It was INSULTING!!         


    Herr Schactner:

    "Oh, let the boy play, Leo.  He can play with me. I don't mind."


    "Wolfie!  Wolfie, come back.  Herr Schactner says you can play with

    him.  But don't play too loud!!"

    (Or: "Don't play so loud that anybody can hear you." - Per Nannerl.) 


    Little Wolfgang played the 2nd Violin Part, as he suggested (the easier

    part), and everyone was amazed.

    No Lessons.  Self-taught.  Nobody knew he had been teaching himself

    how to play his "Toy Violin" - a Small but Real Violin, and that he

    COULD (and DID) play the 2nd Violin Part in a Quartet of Adults.  

    Estimated Age:  Somewhere around Age 4 or 5.

    Nannerl could probably supply the exact Age.

    If he was actually 6 or 7 years old, it's still an amazing accomplishment.


    First Violin Part - Not in the Movie:

    Wolfgang's attempt to then play the First Violin Part did not work out

    well (No Lessons and Too Difficult), but he was able to do Exactly what

    he said he would do:  Play the Second Violin Part with no Lessons.      




                   The Trademark Phrase (the MTM)


   The Trademark Phrase - Early Usage:

   The earliest appearance of the Trademark Phrase appears to be in

   K.9a/5a, in 4 locations, Piano Allegro in C Major, written in 1763

   when Mozart was Age 7. 

   By then, he had been composing music for 2 years. 


                         First Known MTM - K.9a/5a   MIDI

                         Piano Allegro in C Major, 1763


   If there's an earlier usage of the Trademark Phrase (which is

   possible), it hasn't been located, might have been lost or given

   away as a gift, or might not exist at all.   

   In any event, Mozart used this phrase from a very early age, and

   used it for the rest of his life. 


   Where did Mozart's Trademark Phrase come from??

   From Mozart's Musical Creativity?? 


   From other Composers (or one Composer)?? 

        Maybe.  Gasparini used it.  

   Its exact source is unknown.

   Mozart didn't invent something new and unique with this Trademark

   Phrase, but he used it quite often - far more often than other Composers.

   It's woven into MANY of Mozart's Compositions.






               Type-1 Phrases   (Standard Phrases)  -  13

               Type-2 Phrases   (Variations)  -  3


              Trademark Phrases Found So Far  -  65 

               There are many more than this, not yet found, or found

                but not yet documented.

                There could be several Hundred occurrences of the MTM. 

              (These are all Type-1 Phrases - Standard MTM Phrases.)


              2 Examples from Bach and Chopin.    

             The Trademark Phrase is just one of many symbols Mozart used.   

             Challenges and rebuttals to the MTM Theory.   

    * History of the MTM (the Trademark Phrase). 

           Discovery and Documentation.  

                2 Audio Examples of the MTM:    

                   Song/Scena:  Als Luise die Briefe - K.520

                   Song:  Der Zauberer - K.472

        * My Background.

     * MIDI files and MP3's. (Some MIDI's are excellent!!  Quality varies widely!

           Save the good MIDI's and throw away the Bad Ones.) 

     * Modern Gag-me vocal soloists (Except wonderful Angel-Food-Cake Renee Fleming!!

           And a few others.)  

        * Mozart's Geburtshaus (Birth House) in Salzburg.  Been there, done that, twice.

           And once before Mozart was so "popular" (1970).  

           Glad I did it. I was very fortunate.

        * Copies of some Old, Original documents. 

     * My review of the movie "Amadeus" and its Myth Mongering and Slander!!

           (Everything was Wunderbar except Herr Mozart's portrayal.

           The movie was an insult to Mozart and an attack on a Western Icon by Forces unknown.

           It was essentially an attack on Western Civilization by some Scumbags, to make

           Westerners (and fans of Mozart) ashamed and embarrassed to be part of the culture

           of the West (Classical Music, the Ancient Greeks, Science, Engineering, Moon Landings,

           Government, Pioneers [Columbus, Lindbergh, Wright Brothers, etc], Inventions, etc.).

           Clever Psychology is much cheaper and safer than using bombs and bullets.

           Westerners can be FAR prouder of most of their History than other countries - especially

           proud of Mozart - a Good and Decent Man, and a Great Genius.   

          First they attack Mozart, depicting him as a Giggling Fool half the time, then they claim

          that we never landed a Man on the Moon (6 TIMES!!), or even Orbited the Moon

          (10 TIMES)!!  The West is under ATTACK by Demented Pond-Scum Lunatics!! 

             * Mozart's possible last usage of the MTM (in the Requiem's "Lacrimosa").

           Possibly the last notes he ever wrote. 

           Includes 2 Full-Sized photos of the Autograph score of the Lacrimosa, Page 2,

           where Mozart breaks off, with only empty paper following.

                Copy 1.   Top of page.   

                Copy 2.   2/3 down the Page.

           Reduced Size Copy shown below. 



                  Lacrimosa Autograph Score.  (Reduced size shown above.)    

                  This is Page 2 of the Lacrimosa Autograph Score.

                  Bars 6-8.  "Ex favilla judicandus homo reus...."

                  Possibly the last notes Mozart ever wrote.

                  The FAQ contains the Full-Sized copies. 


        * John Cage (cough...).  ["You've Got To Be Kidding...."].


             * A portion of K.608 is analyzed (Organ Fantasia).  "The Machine Speaks!!".

           The scene for that Wax Museum music might have been the Machine itself,

           as far as Mozart was concerned.  Mozart apparently ANIMATED the Machine,

           turning it into a "Mechanical Being" - almost a Robot. 

          (Q15 - Bottom of the FAQ page). 

     Contributors to the information on this website.  


    Mailbag: Comments from a Composer/Teacher/Music Critic  







   Additional topics on this website.     

   Click to read.                                     


               Evidence of Authenticity.

               The controversy of the piece known as "Meistermusik" --

               the "Choral Version" of The Masonic Funeral Music.    

               Nancy Storace might be involved - and others. 

               And it might even have involved his Mother's death.

               Meistermusik was almost certainly the foundation for

               "The Masonic Funeral Music".   

               The famous Masonic Funeral Music is also somewhat

               controversial due to a Strange Date for it in Mozart's Catalog,

               and other issues.

              All that PATHOS for a couple of Swells???

              But some claim that The Masonic Funeral Music must

              have been a New Piece despite a perfect fit for some text

              and a known Vocal Melody and Style - for an Orchestral Piece. 

              We try to slice through all of this complexity with Research,

              Analysis, a "Wider Net", and add a dash of humor for relief.

              Some Meistermusik Topics:

                           *  Purpose, Audience, Short History, Primary Evidence, etc.

                           *  Official Reasons and possible Personal Reasons for composing Meistermusik

                               and The Masonic Funeral Music.  

                           *  Phrase Analysis of Meistermusik - Music and Text). 

                           *  The strange 1785 COLLECTION of Pieces.  (1785 was a stressful year). 

                                    (The Dissonant Quartet - Why??  And a Song about a Girlfriend??  Etc).

                           *  Meistermusik and the MFM seem to be a MISMATCH for their Official Purposes. 

                           *  Is The Masonic Funeral Music really "FUNEREAL" or just SAD?? 

                           *  Is The Masonic Funeral Music really "MASONIC"??    

                      *  Some excerpts from Mozart's Thematic Catalog for 1785.    

                      *  Some excerpts from the Koechel Catalog for 1785.    

                           General Information   

                                   Description and Basic Theory of Meistermusik.

                                   First Performances of Meistermusik and the MFM.

                                   The MFM has traces of a Predecessor. 


                           Funeral March in C Minor - K.453a  1784  (MIDI - Organ)

                                  Completely different from The Masonic Funeral Music. 


                           Mozart: Meaning and Emotions

                              Mozart depicted Meaning and Emotions with Music. 

                              That was his JOB and PURPOSE - most of the time.

                              That was Usually how Mozart earned his living. 



                      Spy Report

                             Queen Charlotte Issues / "New Piece" issues (dash of humor).

                             Let's charge the Queen for Mecklenburg's Memorial Service. 

                             Reports from the Queen's Chief Music Spy.

               Still not good enough, but hopefully a little better than Süssmayr's.

               Includes Mozart's  "Amen"  sketch for the Requiem, and several

               lengthened versions of it by composers - a Sketch that was never

               fleshed out by Mozart for use in the Requiem. 

               Two of the "Amen" versions are by "Ferenc" of Hungary, who was a

               University Student at the time he contacted me in 2007.

               Very well done!!  Very creative!!     

               Jumping to conclusions, Nonsense, Rumor, and Mythology,

                    as other investigators have shown, regarding this

                    beautiful Piece.   

                    Probably written a year before his wedding. 

               The Current Burial Status and Location of Mozart and others.

               Quite a few Missing and Moved Mozarts and friends!!

               It's surprising and rather odd!! 


               * Mozart was buried in a TYPICAL, POPULAR, USUAL, 


                  and almost certainly in a COFFIN - not in a sack, and not

                  in a Mass Grave, as often depicted. 

                  His "3rd Class Burial" was a typical "Middle Class" burial -

                  not a "Pauper's Burial". Not a "Pauper's Grave".  

              * The "Mozart Family Grave" (it's entirely or mostly a fake).

              * Shocking Information on Leopold Mozart.

              * Anna Maria Mozart (infant) - info from Michael Lorenz.

                 ("Kristian" and "Kristina" were just provisional names -

                   standard temporary pseudonyms until named).  

              * Mozart's almost-brother: Johann Karl Amadeus.

              * Usage of the name "Amadeus" (it's perfectly valid). 

              * Evidence and Accuracy Versus Fiction and Fantasy.

              * Information on several aspects of these issues comes from

                Michael Lorenz, and he deserves much of the credit - correcting

                erroneous information, and adding to our General Information

                on Mozart.  

                Thank you, Michael!!               

              *  Main culprits: The Doctors  (Phlebotomies and Emetics

                  [Blood-letting and Vomiting] )

              *  Initial cause: The Latest War with the Turks.

                  Austrian Soldiers brought diseases back to Vienna.

                  Many Citizens of Vienna DIED of Strep Infections. 

                  Mozart became sick.  Then Doctors "treated" Mozart,

                  and Mozart died.    

              *  Secondary cause: Lichnowsky and his Hostile Lawsuit.

              *  Tertiary cause: Atrocious weather in October/November. 

                  Snow, sleet, rain, and cold wind almost constantly.

              *  Mozart probably had multiple Diseases - not just one. 

              *  Number of causes of Mozart's Death: 

                  At Least 6 Causes.

              *  Articles asking "What Disease Did Mozart Die Of?" are misleading with their

                     Narrow Focus of "ONE CAUSE" and "ONE DISEASE".  Too narrow an approach.  

                     Their focus should be: "What CAUSED Mozart's Death?"

                     There were SEVERAL causes, and Mozart probably had several diseases

                     based on his symptoms - overlapping symptoms.

                     Causes:  War/Turks, Doctors, Lichnowsky, The Court, Weather, Additional Diseases,

                                   Loneliness, Leopold (earlier), a Possible Desire to Escape his Problems(??),

                                   Pain and Suffering, the Disgusting Results of Medical "Treatments",

                                   Causing Worry and Suffering for Others, etc.

                     The combination was Very Unhealthy and Dangerous, but it was the Doctors and their

                     primitive and dangerous "Treatments" who  rendered the Final Blow and killed him.

                     Blaming "One Disease" for Mozart's Death is ridiculous!! 

                     Blaming "The Doctors' Treatments for his Illness" is far more accurate, but other factors

                     also need to be taken into account.

                     If Mozart "emotionally gave up", he apparently did so at the last minute.

                     Without the Doctors, he might have lived.

                     Without the latest War with the Turks, he wouldn't have become sick in the first place,

                     and should have lived for many more years, composing more wonderful Music.      

               Related to  K.594,  608,  and  616.

               We can try to match the tableau with the music. 

               K.608 might not have a tableau.  Difficult to match.  

               An interesting piece for unknown instruments. 

               Information on her youth and death.  

               She led 2 lives: A Wonderful Life and A Tragic Life.

               The End was painful and prolonged - not quick and easy.

               Tough on Mozart, too. 

               A List of newly discovered Pieces, lost Pieces, Fragments, 

               copies of other composer's works, etc, designated "Deest"

               by Mozart scholars.

               No K numbers or Anhang numbers assigned yet. 

               "Deest Numbers" have now been assigned (D1, D2, D3....)

               for easier and more accurate reference to these Pieces. 

               Current DEEST Total:  Approximately 106 Pieces.     

               A List of Fragmentary Pieces (Incomplete Pieces) composed

               by Mozart.

               Original listing prepared by Gary Smith in 2001.

               Edited by Dave Morton. 

               Current FRAGMENT Total:  Approximately 156 Pieces.     

               Original listing prepared by Dennis Pajot in 2004 and 2008. 

               Edited and expanded by Dave Morton.

               Other Sources:  Not checked yet.

               Current LOST Total:  Approximately 72 Pieces  (minimum).     

               Original listing prepared by Dennis Pajot in 2003. 

               Edited by Dave Morton.

               Other Sources:  Not checked yet.

               Current LOST AUTOGRAPH Total:  Approximately 98 Pieces.     

              Mozart depicted Meaning and Emotions with Music. 

              That was his JOB and PURPOSE - most of the time.

              That was Usually how Mozart earned his living.  

           Blaming Tech Support for everything (by Irresponsible Poor Babies

           and Irresponsible Managers) is similar to Leopold's blaming of Mozart

           for his Mother's death.

             Mozart was PARTLY at fault in this case, and it's a sad and tragic

             story of a lonely Mother and a 22-year-old young man who had met

             the greatest Soprano in all of Europe (Aloysia Weber) and fallen in love,

             and had fallen in love with the entire Weber Family!!  

             BUT Leopold's actions, Bad Luck, Bad Advice, Primitive Medicine,

             and an Underfunded Trip also played major roles in this tragedy. 

             (Eg, Leo refused to let his sick wife return to Salzburg early. That was

             clearly NOT Mozart's fault.  The Mother became sicker and died.

             And Leo Underfunded the trip when he could easily have fully funded it

             by selling some of the gifts received on earlier trips - a fair and reasonable

             thing to do, under the circumstances.  That was also NOT Mozart's fault.) 

             Mozart (Tech Support) was partly the victim of Irresponsibility, and

             "Shoot First, and Ask Questions Later".  IE, "Business as Usual".

             Today, The Empire Strikes Back at Leo the Skunk/Jerk/Bozo, and clarifies

             who's really to blame for their own problems (with Tech Support ALSO

             handicapped by Low-Budget Limitations, Woefully Inadequate Staffing,

             "Security Departments" who don't have the slightest idea of what "Security"

             means, etc, etc).

             To some extent, Mozart was a One-Man Tech Support Department, and he

             sometimes paid a heavy price for it - especially from the Skunk, who often

             treated Mozart as his unpaid Servant - and WORSE.

             The "Tech Support" similarities with Mozart are striking.    

              Miscellaneous thoughts on Mozart



     Egypt: This section relates loosely to Mozart, but is mostly just interesting information

     about the Egyptian Pyramids, and Ancient Egypt in general.

     The Pyramids of Giza are STAGGERING in the Genius and Complexity of their Design!!

     They were NOT built as Tombs. Mozart and Freemasonry are related to Egypt in unknown ways.    

     Click on the LINK ABOVE for the full story.



 ------------- Update Status and History of Topics --------------


 First heard Mozart ............................ 1940's      

 Became a Mozart Fan ........................... 1962 (Approx)      

 MTM Discovered ................................ 1962 (Approx)   

 First MTM Paper Written ....................... 1998   

 Website Created (MTM Topic) ................... 2001 

 Additional Topics Added to MTM Section ........ 2002==>Present   

 Additional Non-MTM Topics Added to Website .... 2002==>Present

 (See the FAQ for the MTM History details.)      


 Most Recent MTM Updates by Topic:

 Home Page (this page) ......................... Nov 2016 

 MTM Type-1 Phrases - Long Citations ........... Feb 2016 

 MTM Type-2 Phrases - Long Citations ........... Nov 2011

 MTM Short Citations (65 listed) ............... Jun 2013 

 FAQ - Questions and Other Topics .............. Mar 2015 

 Acknowledgements of Sources/Contributors ...... Feb 2015

 Mailbag ....................................... May 2004 


 Latest NON-MTM Updates:

 Meistermusik and the Masonic Funeral Music .... Dec 2017 

 An Improved SANCTUS for the Requiem ........... Dec 2017

    With Requiem "Amen" Sketches (Audio)   

 Home Page - Non-MTM Text (this page) .......... Jul 2017 

 Mozart's Mother ............................... Jul 2017 

 Missing and Moved Mozarts and Friends ......... Jun 2017 

 Mozart Myths: K.361 and Mozart's WEDDING ...... Jun 2017

 FRAGMENTS ..................................... May 2017   

 DEEST Pieces - Numbered ....................... Aug 2016 

 LOST Mozart Autograph Scores .................. Nov 2016 

 LOST Mozart Compositions ...................... Aug 2016 

 New Information About Mozart .................. Nov 2016 

 Mozart: Meaning and Emotions .................. Sep 2016

 Pyramids/Egypt ................................ Jun 2016

 The Blaming of Tech Support (Wolfgang, etc) ... Feb 2016

 Mozart's Death ................................ Dec 2015

    War Notes .................................. Jul 2015

 Inventory of Count Deym's Wax Museum .......... Jul 2012

 K.355 played with 4 different instruments ..... Feb 2009



 ------------------------ Special Thanks -------------------------

 Special thanks goes to  Dr. Michael Lorenz  of Vienna.

 The Musical Trademark is my own discovery, and almost all of the verbiage

 is mine, but in adding additional articles over the years, and expanding

 them, I have sometimes borrowed from the research performed by Dr. Lorenz

 and his many visits to Archives and other locations in Vienna, Salzburg,

 and elsewhere.


 He is, without a doubt, one of the Top Mozart Scholars, Researchers, and

 Authorities in the World.

 He's a REAL Expert on Mozart, based in Vienna, obviously reading and

 speaking German - including "Old German", having Full Access to European

 Archives, etc, with a "MASTER KEY" to all the Documents and Locations -

 something an Amateur or Expert non-Austrian / non-German Mozart Fan can

 never acquire.

 They won't even let you Touch, Handle, or View the Old, Rare Documents

 unless you're at the level of Lorenz, and a native Austrian or German.

 Exception:  For Tourists, some old paintings and a Piano are on display

 in Mozart locations, and some items are kept under glass.

 But almost everything else is locked up somewhere, or inaccessible to

 the Public. And rightfully so!!

 Some "Tourists" are dangerous, and most Amateurs couldn't possibly read

 or understand the Old Documents.

 Expert non-Europeans with PhD's MIGHT be given some limited Access (and

 have been in the past, such as in the 1970's and earlier), but since the

 increased popularity of Mozart in the 1980's, that Access might have

 dried up - at least, partially.  

 The Custodians are protecting PRICELESS Historical Documents and Items

 worth Millions of Dollars, and are the Fort Knox of the Mozart World,

 the Music World, and the Historical World, available for inspection

 ONLY to German-speaking German and Austrian Scholars, with a few possible

 exceptions made to others who can demonstrate their prowess in the subject

 under examination (such as being able to READ and UNDERSTAND a letter

 written by Mozart or one of his group - Wife, Father, Friend, etc).

 Click the Link below for more information.    

    Dave Morton 


                       Michael-Lorenz-More Info

             (Click for More Information and Website Address)



 -------------------- Other Contributors -----------------------

 Much of the information on this website came from other researchers and

 authors, professionals and amateurs. Some of it is my own, but much of it

 is from many others who contributed important information, and they are

 acknowledged either at the end of the articles or on the "ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS"

 Page with deep gratitude.

 Thank you, Contributors.

 (The Trademark Phrase concept (MTM) is my own.)

 The Meistermusik article, Sanctus, K.355, and several others are my own. Etc.

 Any errors in these articles are mine.



 ----------------- Origins and Acknowledgements ------------------

 This website began as a single topic: Mozart's Musical Trademark, and

 I was the sole Author.

 It was expanded to other topics using notes, Emails, documents, etc,

 INTENDED FOR MY OWN USE, with no thought of "going public". 

 They were "Notes To Myself" so I could reference the information when



 I was not always very careful in acknowledging people when I started

 creating this website, and often no longer had that information.


 I apologize to any people who have made contributions to the information

 on these pages, who I didn't acknowledge.


 In that regard, please see the "Acknowledgements" page, and please

 feel free to contact me in order to add your name to the list, or to

 cite you as a source for a particular item on these pages.

 I will be very happy to fully acknowledge you as my source. 

 Thank you, Contributors.


                                        Acknowledgements and Credits   

                           Contributors to the information on this website.  





Some Audio Examples of the Trademark Phrase


Click on the speakers to hear some Audio Examples.

It sounds like this in its most BASIC, elementary form:       (click to listen) 

This is the BASIC, STANDARD Trademark Phrase (the MTM).

It is designated as a "TYPE-1" MTM Phrase (the Standard MTM Phrase).


The Default meaning of "The Trademark Phrase" (the MTM) is always "Type-1" -- 

the Standard Trademark Phrase.

If the Phrase is a Type-2 Phrase (Variation), it needs to be specified.


Some Examples from Mozart's music (more advanced than the Basic form).


Type-1 Phrases - Examples:


1. K.421 - String Quartet:                                         


2. K.511 - Piano Rondo,  mm 73-75:                          


3. K.550 - 40th Symphony in G minor:                     


4. K.594 - Organ Fantasia - Lengthened form:           


5. K.608 - Organ Fantasia  (as 2 beats combined):         


6. K.626 - Lacrimosa in the Requiem (chorus):            

    (Close Enough - Final resolution delayed by 1 chord)



Type-2 Phrases - Examples:

VARIATIONS on the Standard MTM Phrase.

K.626 - Requiem Confutatis, mm 5-6:                     

     This is a TYPE-2 Phrase (Variation). 





Main Article:   Mozart's Musical TradeMark


(Also known as Mozart's MTM or "The MTM"). 

(Occasional capitalization of the word "TradeMark" instead of "Trademark"

is intentional, as it forms part of the acronym "MTM" -

Mozart's "Musical TradeMark").




A significant portion of Mozart's music contains a short musical phrase, making it a



Additionally, Mozart went a step further and used it in many ways, creating



It could also be called MOZART'S MUSICAL THEME.


It serves as a building block for some of his music, usually used to end a phrase, but sometimes

used as the theme of the phrase itself.

In fact, it could be called MOZART'S MUSICAL BUILDING BLOCK since that would

indicate how it's used in many pieces - a handy phrase he could use whenever he needed to. 


It could also be called MOZART'S FINISHING TOUCH since he used it so often to END

a phrase.


Mozart was rarely repetitious, showing amazing creativity in all his music, but this particular phrase

IS repetitious. In that sense alone, it's unique. And since it's the ONLY "Musical Building Block" or

"Finishing Touch" of Mozart's known to exist, it's not one of several building blocks or finishing

touches. It stands alone as the only one.


It's present in many pieces, and in almost every piece in a minor key, often appearing multiple times

in a single piece, and probably amounting to hundreds of usages in his works.


His frequent usage of the phrase is not a theory - it's a documented fact, and this paper supplies a      

portion of the evidence. More examples are being discovered every year.


The rationale behind its use, and the MEANING of the Phrase, may be a theory, but the quantity,

quality, and permutations of the phrase are abundant in Mozart's music.

With so many examples, calling it a "Musical Trademark" is legitimate. The numbers demand it.


It's a very short, musical representation of his music - interesting, complex, innovative,

thoughtful, tasteful, compact, promising, intriguing, harmonically resolving, and musically



Since it forms the basis of so many variations on the theme, it could be called "MOZART'S


(Only 3 variations are documented here, but many more could certainly be located with some

effort. Variations ARE harder to find, but it could be done.)


It represents Mozart's music and thus, a part of the man - a very large part of the man - since

Mozart's life revolved mostly around music ("I am consumed with music" he wrote to his father).

As such, the phrase could be subtitled,  "THIS IS MOZART". 


Another aspect of the phrase is that of solving a problem. The first chord (the Italian 6th)

is the problem, and the 2nd chord is the solution or resolution.

Thus, we get a musical demonstration of PROBLEM/RESOLUTION (very common in music).


And just WHO was this Mozart? Among other things, he was a musical problem-solver - consumed

and obsessed with solving musical problems. The phrase describes that activity quite well, and

therefore, it describes Mozart quite well. Thus, we get the description, as mentioned earlier,


In other words, Mozart was saying, "THIS IS WHO I AM: A musical problem solver".


We therefore end up with at least 10 descriptions for the phrase:

    1. Mozart's Musical Trademark.

    2. Mozart's Musical Theme.

    3. Mozart's Musical Building Block.

    4. Mozart's Finishing Touch.

    5. Mozart's Problem/Resolution Demonstration.

    6. Mozart's Pattern for Musical Variations.

    7. Mozart's Musical Obsession.

    8. Mozart's Musical Tool for almost 30 Years.

    9. A Symbol for Mozart's Music  ("This is My Music").

    10. A Symbol for Mozart the Man  ("This is Who I Am").

         And ONE of the things Mozart was, was a Musical Problem Solver.

         Thus, "This is Who I Am - A Musical Problem Solver".

         At least, partially.


   It REPRESENTS his Music and it REPRESENTS the Man.

   It's a SYMBOL for both the Man and his Music.


  Please keep one thing in mind:  Mozart was not the only composer to   

  use this phrase, but he used it ---FAR MORE OFTEN--- than any

  other composer,  used it in many different ways,  and invented

  variations on the phrase which he also used frequently.           

  No other composer did any of these things. 

  Thus, the term "Mozart's Musical Trademark" is fully Justified.


  Additionally, if you were studying Mozart's music for the first time,

  or his biography, or were a Mozart fan or scholar studying the attributes of

  his music, wouldn't you want to know what Mozart did with his music

  repeatedly??  Frequently??  Often??  Almost Always??

  Wouldn't the Trademark Phrase be part of his STYLE??

  The conclusion is unavoidable.


  When it comes to the subject of Mozart, there are at least 2 things we want

   to know, and most people want to know, when first introduced to his music:

   1. What was his Music like?   (Describe it if you can). 

   2. What was the Man like?     (Describe him if you can). 

   The Trademark Phrase answers BOTH of those questions, to some degree.

   And THAT makes it important.

   I don't know of Anything Else that can answer both questions with ONE





  The Trademark PHRASE is not unique, nor is it especially "amazing"

  or complex.  It's just an interesting phrase.


  But Mozart's *USAGE* of this phrase is unique, and it's a trademark

  of his style.  


  Frequency and Variety - USAGE - are the hallmarks of Mozart's

  Musical Trademark.


  The aspects about the Trademark Phrase that make it worthy of   

   mention and discussion are:

      1)  Mozart used it over and over.

      2)  Mozart invented many Variations on the phrase.

      3)  Mozart occasionally used the phrase to represent his music.

      4)  On rare occasions, Mozart used the phrase to represent himself.  




  Some other composers used the phrase on RARE occasions.

  Some composers NEVER  used it.  

  But Mozart used the phrase all the time - whenever he could.   


  To the best of my knowledge, Mozart was the ONLY composer in the

  world who did this - used the phrase frequently, used it in so many

  ways, and developed variations on it.  

  You probably won't find this usage in the compositions of ANY other

  composer - the Frequency and Variations of the Phrase.                                                                                                                                    

  That's why I call it "Mozart's Musical Trademark".



  Mozart's MTM  (Mozart's Musical TradeMark).


  Additionally, please note that this trademark phrase (the MTM)

  is not the only thing that describes Mozart. Far from it!! 


  For example, he not only fleshed out the characters in his operas, but

  also showed compassion for them. We hear his compassion for Donna   

  Elvira, for example, when Don Giovanni is mocking her(!!) near the final

  act, and she's pleading with him not to deride her.


  DG is mostly indifferent and cruel, she has put aside all his indignities,  

  she's sincere in her love for him, and we hear this compassion for her

  come through loud and clear from Mozart.

  Leporello is grumbling about DG's treatment of her.

  We, in the audience, are ASTOUNDED at Don Giovanni's cruelty, and

  EMPATHIZE with her pain and bewilderment. 

  Donna Elvira is desperate, but sincere, and abused, hurt, and mystified

  by DG's callousness.


  Mozart shows us, in no uncertain terms, that she's a human being with feelings,

  like anyone else, who doesn't deserve this flippant, callous, indifferent, and

  cruel treatment, partly by showing us what she's feeling through the music,

  coupled with the words.

  And we NEED to see this, as explained shortly.

  In fact, this scene is CRITICAL to the action of the Opera, and the understanding

  and enjoyment of the audience. 


  (Donna Elvira: "Ah non deridere gli affani mei... Ah non deridere... Ah non


  "Don't deride my affections... Don't deride me... Don't deride me..."

  As if to say, "Please don't be so cruel to me... For goodness sake.... I'm telling

  you that I LOVE you, and I FORGIVE you. I'm BEGGING you to hear my

  affection for you...

 You shouldn't DERIDE me for my honesty, sincerity, affection, and love....

 Why are you hurting me like this???  Why are you treating me like this???") 


  The music pleads with DG just as much as the words do. The pitches of the

  orchestra and singer become HIGH, with no reassuring base, showing us DE's

  shock, uncertainty, sudden concern, and mild confusion, as well as her vulnerable

  and fragile state, having been twisted around like a toy by DG.

  But we also hear her sincerity and honesty come through like a beam of pure,

  warm sunshine, as described by both da Ponte (the Librettist) and Mozart.     


  The contrast between Donna Elvira's sincerity, nobility, honesty, forgiveness,

  and undeserved torment, and DG's callous, cruel, and indifferent attitude is

  striking, as da Ponte shows us with his words, and Mozart shows us with his



  This is also done for theatrical reasons - literary reasons.

  It's called "Character Development", "Justification", and the building of

  tension leading up to a Climax.

  It's a Story well-told by 2 Professionals who know what they're doing, and

  who know how the Audience will react - if they're paying attention.

  (Are they paying attention??  If they enjoy Mozart's Operas, YES!!

  With Donna Elvira rushing in, revealing what's in her heart, etc, etc, yes,

  the Audience would be paying attention!!)  


  Both da Ponte and Mozart had to do more of it, even though it was late in the

  opera. In fact, doing more Character Development and Justification LATE

  in the opera, near the CLIMAX, when DG is dragged down to Hell, was

  necessary to achieve the desired feeling in the audience of "He deserved it". 

  Objective: "HE DESERVED IT!!".

  We get Tension, Justification, and Punishment for Don Giovanni, and finally

  contented Relief for the Audience, which was "Wrung through the Wringer

  of Emotions" by Lorenzo Da Ponte and Mozart .

  The Libertine has been Punished for his hurtful deeds.  SEVERELY Punished!!

  But Justice has triumphed!!  Don Giovanni deserved what he got!!   


  We need to get angrier at Don Giovanni, even MORE-SO than in previous

  scenes, so that we're only too happy to see him confronted by the Statue of the

  Commendatore and pulled down into Hell by the creepy evil spirits, based on

  his outrageous treatment of Donna Elvira.


  And we need to know that she was deeply hurt by his treatment, based on both

  the words and the corresponding music ("Ah non deridere gli affani mei....") --

  tender and bewildered, sincere, forgiving, generous, and noble.

  We, in the audience, are outraged by DG's actions, and we feel Donna Elvira's


  The message is sent loud and clear by the librettist and composer about who

  Donna Elvira is, what she's been put through, and who Don Giovanni is.


  And now that we understand both characters better, there is added Justification

  for the torment that awaits DG, and the application of Justice.

  We're not appalled at the sight of seeing someone dragged down to Hell:

  We cheer it!!  We applaud it!!


  DG hadn't done anything truly outrageous, lately, and his killing of the

  Commendatore happened because he was almost forced into it by the old man,

  with the poor old Commendatore telling DG, in essence, "Put up your sword,

  you Ruffian, you." and DG telling him to just go away, "I don't want to fight

  you, old man", etc.


  But we need to get VERY angry at DG to cheer for what's in store for him.   

  Our sense of Justice depends on our attitude, and Mozart and da Ponte opened

  all the stops for this scene with Donna Elvira to strengthen and solidify our

  attitude against DG. 

  It HAD to be done for theatrical reasons!! 


  If Mozart hadn't been able to describe what Donna Elvira was going through,

  the impact of seeing DG punished would have been diminished, and the whole

  point of the opera would have been weakened.

  Seeing DG dragged down to Hell would have been seen more as a theatrical

  gimmick, rather than the application of Justice.


  Thus, Mozart HAD to musically show us the torment that DG was inflicting on

  Donna Elvira, and he had to do a convincing job of it for the opera to work.

  The success of the opera depended on it!!

  And he succeeded.  IL Dissoluto Punito!! 


  And considering Mozart's innate sense of the dramatic and theatrical, Mozart

  might even have had a hand in creating this scene.


  So, this too describes Mozart the  Man: A compassionate, empathetic,

  understanding person. He couldn't have written the opera without having those


  And he couldn't have written much of anything without having many other

  outstanding qualities.


  The point is that the MTM does not, and can not, describe everything that Mozart

  was - as a man or a composer. It's clearly impossible.

  For example, it doesn't describe his feelings of compassion for Donna Elvira

  (or for anyone else in that opera, in other operas, his friends, etc).

  But it describes **PART** of who he was, and it does it in a short phrase of 2 chords. 

  And to some extent, it IMPLIES that sophisticated human qualities must be

  present in the composer, based on the sophistication of the MTM phrase itself,

  used repeatedly in his music (many more times than I've documented, so far). 


  So, the MTM describes who Mozart was, to the extent that a single phrase can

  do so.  It's not a "complete" description of Mozart (of course not), but it gives

  one a fairly good idea of the Man  - and his music - in one sound bite. 



Note that, for Number 4 (Mozart's Finishing Touch), sometimes the phrase is much more

than a finishing touch, and comprises the theme itself.


Being able to hear the phrase in Mozart's works is important since it comprises so much

of his music. This paper will help you with that, and use both audible and written music

to do it, along with a short analysis of the phrase to clarify and pinpoint the location.

(See the section Long Citations listed below).


And since Mozart used the phrase for about 30 YEARS, we can be sure it was important

to HIM.


The phrase is sometimes expanded to a multi-bar theme, or is used as a variation,

and is even used symbolically to represent "Mozart the Man" on rare occasions.


Its form may be simple, complex, or very complex and hidden.


There may be hundreds of usages of the phrase, but only 18 complete citations are listed here,

 due to the amount of work involved in citing them, with measure numbers and notes.


This paper includes:

     18 "long" citations of the phrase in "Examples" (with many more short citations

        in the section called "Trademark Phrases Found So Far").

     17 sound clips of the long citations, in MIDI format.

     Citations in 6 musical forms (symphony, opera, piano sonata, etc).

     Citations from a wide range of Kochel numbers.

     3 additional sound clips of Early Usage in the Examples section. 

     Numerous "Short Citations" of the MTM, where the piece, and usually the movement 

       are listed, but the particular measure is unknown.

     Symbolism, Other Composer's Usage, Comments and Discussion, Frequently Asked Questions,

       a Mailbag, and several other topics of interest (see Additional Topics below).

       Mozart's LAST known usage of the Trademark Phrase is discussed in the FAQ, and is in the

       Requiem in the Lacrimosa (which is probably the last number he wrote).





      Mozart's Motivation

      Mozart'a original and fundamental motivation for using the MTM Phrase is that

      he apparently liked the phrase. (My speculation). 

      But as time went on, he apparently found additional motivations for using it.


      Mozart may have been trying to represent his music, and sometimes himself,

      with a musical phrase.

      This could have been a natural outgrowth of frequent usage of the phrase.

      The more often he used it, the more often it represented him and his music.

      And it probably occurred to him that the phrase represented him and his music. 


      How would you represent Mozart's MUSIC?

      How would you represent Mozart, the MAN?  With music?


      If you used music to represent Mozart's music, how would you do it?

      If you used music to represent Mozart, the man, how would you do it?


      Let's say you had to represent his music in one measure. How would you do it?

      Is there such a thing as a typical Mozart phrase?

      Is there such a thing as a "typical" Mozart piece?


      I would answer "No" to both of those questions since Mozart's music is so original.

      IE, a typical Mozart phrase and a typical Mozart piece probably don't exist.


      However, there might be such a thing as a REPRESENTATIVE Mozart phrase,

      rather than a typical one.


      If you were introducing Mozart's music to a group of people who had never heard

      his music, and you said to them "Behold! Mozart!", what music would you play?

      It's a difficult choice since there probably isn't a "typical" Mozart piece.

      Eine Kleine Nachtmusik is completely different from the Requiem, and completely

      different from the Jupiter Symphony, and completely different from the Masonic

      Funeral Music. Most of his pieces were very unique creations. To represent Mozart's

      music, you would probably need to use a representative PHRASE - not an entire piece,

      since there probably is no such thing as a representative piece.


      Then there's the issue of representing Mozart the MAN - the PERSON.

      Supposing you had to represent Mozart - the man, with some kind of symbol -

      with music or anything else. How would you do it?


      Would a painting be the best way? A statue? Music? A letter? A story?

      If you used music to represent the MAN, what music would you use?

      What kind of person was Mozart? Does his music help to define him?

      Was he complex? Simple? Interesting? Boring? Creative? Uninspired?

      Smart? Stupid? Enjoyable? Obnoxious? Fascinating? Predictable?


      How about "complex, interesting, creative, smart, enjoyable, fascinating"?

      Might that represent the man? Might that also represent his music?


    Mozart once told his Father in a letter, "I am consumed with music."

      Knowing that, it does seem reasonable to represent Mozart himself with music.  

      Mozart was essentially saying, "I am music."

      And representing music (Mozart) with music that he used frequently (the MTM)

      seems logical and obvious.

      Thus, to SOME extent, the MTM represents Mozart.

      The argument is COMPELLING and INEVITABLE. 

      Mozart was music, and the repeated music of the MTM is Mozart. 

      We have found Mozart!! 


      This paper is a kind of "cart before horse" situation in which possible answers have

       been found to questions that probably haven't been asked before involving the

       preceding questions, but with Mozart giving us the answers. Namely,


       1. How would Mozart represent his music?  and -

       2. How would Mozart represent himself?


       If you were to illustrate Mozart's music and Mozart the man to some people with this

       2-chord trademark phrase, your audience would probably not be impressed (an entire piece

       would be much better, obviously), but at least it would be accurate.


      This paper illustrates the existence of Mozart's "Trademark Phrase" or "Musical Trademark",

      but the deeper issue is "What does the Phrase mean?" For example, does it represent his music?

      Does it represent himself? Does it represent both? Does it have some other significance?

      There must be a reason he used it so often.  What was the reason?


      We already know that Mozart used a certain musical phrase over and over again.

      It's not a theory. It's a fact. Perhaps that fact means nothing special, but I think there's

      a better chance that it does have a meaning. Mozart was precise and careful with his

      composing - not sloppy and whimsical. If he wrote it, he meant it. Every note counted.


      It may have begun as an exercise in musical creativity, but I think Mozart's reasons for using

      it gradually changed.


      I believe that, over time, Mozart used the phrase to represent and identify his music, and

      eventually, identified the phrase with himself, at times, such that the phrase represented him.

      So, Mozart progressed in his usage of the phrase in the following way:

            1. An interesting phrase.

            2. A trademark of most of his music - used when possible.

            3. A symbol of himself, at times.



      The phrase probably answers several questions, with Mozart asking and answering the questions:

      Q1. "How can I represent my music in a nutshell?"

      A1. "With music."  It's the easiest and most logical method.


      Q2. "How can I represent myself with some kind of symbol?"

      A2. "With music."  It's the easiest and most logical method.


      Q3. "If I use music to represent my music and my self, what music should I use?"

      A3. "My Musical Trademark phrase - the MTM."

      Why? Because the MTM does a reasonably good job of quickly representing Mozart's music,

      and Mozart himself.


      How do we know this? Because of the nature of the phrase - complex, beautiful, used repeatedly

      in many pieces, etc.

      QUANTITY and QUALITY tell us that there's something important about that phrase.

      It represents his music better than any single piece can, and it's representative of the kind of

      man Mozart was.


    Mozart used the phrase in dozens and dozens of pieces, and in multiple ways.

      Long ways, short, massive, small, delicate, modified, etc. Mozart didn't tell us WHY he used it

      so often, but we can conclude one thing for certain: It's important!!

      The Phrase was almost as important as breathing to Mozart.


      And it probably means something. Knowing Mozart, it MUST mean something. If he wrote it,

      he MEANT it.


      The final question is the most important:

      Q4. WHY would Mozart want to create a representation and identification of his music, and

             represent himself in his music in some way - if that's what the MTM is?

             What was his motivation for doing so?


      Answer: In my opinion, because he knew he was the greatest composer in the world, and felt 

                   he should have a symbol of himself and his music..

                   If you were a genius and the greatest composer in the world, wouldn't you??

                   Especially if you were treated as a Wunderkind as a child, and in an era of

                   dominating symbols such as The Church, Royalty, etc, and you were sometimes

                   treated shabbily by such institutions? He knew he was special - very special.

                   He knew he was the greatest composer who ever lived, and possibly the greatest

                   pianist who ever lived.

                   He probably wanted to rise above all institutions of the day and say,

                   "Look at me. I am Mozart, and I'm the greatest composer in the world.".

            He knew he deserved some kind of symbol representing himself and his music.

                   Various institutions had their symbols, and Mozart had his.


                   In short, he probably created the MTM (or appropriated it) because he WANTED

                   a symbol, felt he DESERVED a symbol, and perhaps felt that he NEEDED a symbol.


                   In computer programming, one of the recent ideas is "Ego-less programming".

                   The idea is ridiculous. There's no such thing as "Ego-less programming" where

                   one is not supposed to take pride in one's creation, and not have one's ego involved

                   in its creation. Good programmers are proud of their creations and their techniques.

                   It's both an art and a science.

                   Only a Retarded Clock-Puncher would try to follow such worthless advice.

                   "Ego-less programming" is just another Pointless, Brain-Dead, Time-Wasting concept

                    by some Clueless Half-Wits who regularly grind out similar Nonsensical Ideas.  


                   The same is true of music composition. There's no such thing as "Ego-less composing".

                   The idea is absurd. All or Most of one's Ego is tied up in the composition.

                   Mozart's ego was thoroughly involved in his compositions. 

                   And as the greatest composer who ever lived, Mozart might have wanted a symbol

                   of his compositions and of himself. A symbol of his ego. And there's nothing wrong

                   with that - especially if you're the best. 


                   Whatever his reason for creating the MTM, he was strongly motivated to do it.

                   He began using the phrase at age 7, and didn't stop until he died - about 28 years


                   From 1763 until 1791, Mozart used the MTM in his music. There must be a reason.

                   Whatever the reason, the phrase is important!!



       The Basic "Trademark" Phrase


      The phrase consists of 2 chords: An Italian 6th chord followed by a major resolution.



              The Basic Trademark Phrase:  2 Chords (Any Key)

                         An Italian 6th chord followed by a major resolution.


      These note relationships remain the same regardless of the key.

      The first chord may, at times, be defined as a Dominant 7th.

      However, the names used are irrelevant to the definition.

      The phrase is defined in terms of note relationships - not chord names, although chord names

      are used in this paper for convenience when discussing the notes (Italian 6th), since chord names

      can be used as a shorthand for describing the notes.



      define the phrase - not the chord names. 

      The chord names are used only for convenience - not as a definition. 



     Chord Names

     Chord names can be somewhat ambiguous, subjective, and debatable. The reader is free to use

     whatever chord names he prefers for the Trademark Phrase. The names of the chords do not alter

     the notes Mozart used, and are completely irrelevant for the purposes of this paper, and for illustrating

     what Mozart did with these notes. 


     The terms "Italian 6th", "Augmented 6th", "Major Resolution", etc, are used only as a shorthand for

     convenience, not to prescribe a musical terminology. 


     Again, it is the note relationships and only the note relationships which define the phrase, where the

     chord names are used as a shorthand for convenience only.  

     The reader is free to disagree with the names of the chords, but the notes (if copied correctly) are

     indisputable, and are the only components which matter. 

     Arguing about chord names is a waste of time, and shows that the reader completely missed the point

     of this paper. It would be similar to debating the color of ink Mozart normally used (dark), or whether

     he called Paris "Pair-isss" or "Pair-eee" or "Parrr-eee" or something else. It's probably completely

     irrelevant to the  music, and certainly irrelevant to this paper. 


     (I did read one rather interesting bit of information, recently, where it was stated that in one of his

     early concert halls, in the same building where he lived and performed piano concertos, the audience

     had to STAND. This might have induced Mozart to hold down the length of those concertos, somewhat,

     out of concern for the audience (just speculating), and is probably important information regarding his

     Piano Concertos.

     From an article by Dr. Michael Lorenz.) 





     The "Trademark Phrase" was first discovered in the early 1960s by the author. This paper was

     first written in 1998, and placed on the web in 2001. A number of revisions have been made for clarity,

     and more examples added since 2001.

     About 40 years went by before the MTM was publicized.

     One of the reasons for the delay is that I thought everyone knew about the MTM. Apparently not.


                                               . . . . . . . .


     “Trade-mark  n ... 2: a distinguishing characteristic or feature firmly associated with a

       person or thing. <Derringers became almost a trademark of gamblers>”.

                                                                  Webster’s New Collegiate Dictionary, 1973.


Many of Mozart's pieces contain a particular 2-chord musical phrase (or chord progression)

known as "an Italian 6th chord,  followed by a major resolution". 

The "Italian 6th" is a form of the augmented 6th chord.


He not only used this phrase far more frequently than other composers, he also focused on it

in some passages, and developed it to a high degree of sophistication as only Mozart could.

It is deeply embedded in much of his music. In some cases, it forms the core musical fabric

of a section or passage. 


His frequent usage and development of this phrase has always been one of the distinguishing

characteristics of much of his music (to my ears) which I’ve always thought of as his musical



The phrase may exist as:


It should be mentioned that this trademark characteristic of Mozart's music is not simply a

matter of counting how many times Mozart used the phrase compared with other

contemporary composers. Mozart often focused on that phrase with the music seemingly

funneled to it, and sometimes used it in complex ways. The augmented 6th  was generally

not used by Mozart as a mere short bridge to some other musical idea: It and its resolution

and preamble  were the musical idea, in many cases. It was often the musical fabric itself.

No other composer did this to the extent that Mozart did, making Mozart's usage of the

phrase unique.



Types of Augmented 6th Chords used by Mozart

Mozart used the Italian, German and French forms of the augmented 6th chord.

The latter two are supersets of the Italian form, containing an extra note in each case.

That is:

          Augmented 6th   -   2 notes                                            (such as  D#-----------C#)

          Italian 6th           -   3 notes  =  augmented 6th + 1 note   (such as  D#---G------C#)

          German 6th        -   4 notes  =  Italian 6th + 1 note          (such as  D#---G-A#--C#)

          French 6th          -   4 notes  =  Italian 6th + 1 note          (such as  D#---G-A---C#)

Even when Mozart used the German and French forms of the augmented 6th chord, he

was still using the notes of the Italian 6th to form the basic structure of the chord.

The origin of the names "Italian, French, and German" 6th are unknown.



Reason for its Use

It is not known if Mozart intentionally used this phrase as a way of musically "signing

his name", as an artist would sign his name, or if he simply used it because he liked

the phrase, and its use seemed fitting for a particular location in a piece. Unless a letter

or other evidence turns up where he mentions its intentional inclusion, we may never

know his motivation for using it so often. Using it as a symbol of his music and of himself

is a strong possibility.


Mozart used the phrase so often and in so many different ways, that it is safe to say that

he had an endless fascination with it. Perhaps that was his reason for using it.


Since the phrase does not appear in all his pieces, it might seem that it is not a musical

signature or musical trademark, and would be the equivalent of van Gogh signing

some of his paintings, but not all of them. However, not every piece permits its use,

musically speaking: Some are too short, some have the wrong "ambience", etc.

While van Gogh could sign his name to every painting, Mozart could not do the same

to every composition.


In general, the trademark phrase appears in pieces, which are long enough to permit it,

and have the right musical ambience - sometimes appearing multiple times in a single

piece and even on a single page.



Meaning of its Use

Since we don't know the reason Mozart used this phrase so often, it's difficult or impossible

to assign a meaning to it. However, some elementary conclusions can be drawn:

1. The phrase illustrates the kind of music Mozart liked - at least, in terms of 2 chords.

2. The phrase illustrates the kind of music Mozart was fascinated by.

3. We can see Mozart's creative abilities at work on a single phrase as he invents different

    forms of the phrase.

4. The phrase represents Mozart's music to a degree, since it is so pervasive and often

    thoroughly embedded..


 We can also speculate as to whether the phrase may have represented Mozart himself,

 at times, being used as it was in the highly personal piano rondo K.511, the piano part

 of the concert aria  K.505, and others.

 K.505 was written as a "duet" for voice and piano for his friend Nancy Storace, with

 Nancy singing, and Wolfgang playing the accompanying piano part. Since the phrase

 represents his music, to a degree, and since his music represents who he was, to a degree,

 it would not be much of a reach to say that the phrase which represented his music and

 who he was, therefore represented HIM in that piece.

I don't know if Nancy Storace had a musical symbol in that piece, or not, but Mozart

definitely did!!


 If that speculation is true, then the trademark phrase is much more than a trademark:  

 It is the musical representation of Mozart himself - at least in that

 piece (K.505), and probably many others.

The phrase represents Mozart in one "sound bite".



Earliest Use

The earliest use of the phrase appears to be in K.9a/5a, Allegro in C Major for Piano,

written in 1763.

"K.9a" is the Kochel-3 number.

"K.5a" is the designation in the 6th edition of the Kochel Catalog (Kochel-6).

The phrase appears 4 times:  Measures 13/14,  34/35,  57/58, and 79/80.

For the first usage (mm 13/14), the trademark notes are:

Eb--G--Db,  D--[F#]--D.

The F# in the 2nd chord was interpolated from a higher F#.

The actual notes for the 2nd chord are: D-A-D-F#  yielding D--[F#]--D by

interpolating the F# and discarding the "A".


1st Chord:

Eb--G--Db   or  D#--G--C#


2nd Chord:

D--A--D--F#   ==>  D--D--F#  ==>  D--[F#]--D


Trademark Phrase in K.9a/5a (the MTM).

Allegro in C Major for Piano, 1763: 

Eb--G--Db,   D--[F#]--D    or....

D#--G--C#,   D--[F#]--D




(While this is a fairly sophisticated piece, the violin sonatas which preceded it

(K.7 and K.9) are even more sophisticated. It's truly amazing that a child could compose

such original, interesting, and sophisticated music. It's no wonder that the young Mozart

was regarded as a Wunderkind. He was.)


Another early use of the phrase is K.19d (May, 1765) for 2-manual

harpsichord, 4 hands, written for performing by himself and Nannerl, his sister.

The date is uncertain since the style of the piece doesn't appear to match Mozart's

then-current style. Wolfgang Plath has doubts as to the authenticity of the piece, but all the  

known facts about it seem to make it probable that Mozart was the composer. For example, a

Mozart family portrait depicts Nannerl playing the piano in exactly the same way that she

would have played K.19d as the primo performer of the 4-handed piece on a single keyboard,

with her left hand reaching under Mozart's right hand


As an example of another early piece, the trademark phrase can easily be heard in the

Symphony Number 6 in F Major (K.43) in the first movement, written in 1767 when

Mozart was 11.



MTM Usage by Other Composers

Predecessors, contemporaries, and followers of Mozart.


It can be found in some music by (or believed to be by) Quirino Gasparini, some

of which Mozart included in one of his pieces (K.195/186d - Litaniae Lauretanae, number 3:

Salus Inforum).

That is, the Salus Inforum, which contains the Trademark Phrase, is believed to be by

Gasparini, and Mozart included that piece in his K.195 - Litaniae Lauretanae.  

Gasparini also wrote a beautiful piece called "Adoramus Te" which was originally attributed to 

Mozart (K.327) since Mozart had made a copy of it. This piece by Gasparini also contains

the trademark phrase.

So, in Gasparini's case, Mozart used or copied the pieces containing the trademark phrase

penned by Gasparini on 2 occasions, and incorporated them into his own works or study




It can be heard in the music of Baldassari Galuppi of Venice, notably the Piano Sonata in

C Major, 3rd movement.


JS Bach: 

A candidate for occasional usage would be the music of JS Bach, and one such

example is listed here from the Mass in B Minor.


Josef Haydn: 

I have been advised by reader David Allen that Haydn used this phrase several times

in his "Nelson Mass", namely in the Kyrie in multiple places, and in the Qui Tollis at

bar 51. Additional locations in the Mass probably contain the phrase, but haven't yet been

documented. This mass was composed in 1798, several years after Mozart's death.

Since this piece was written after Mozart died, and since Haydn and Mozart were friends,

Haydn may have copied the phrase from Mozart, and even included it as a gesture of

appreciation or friendship.

The phrase is not "rocket science", and Haydn could certainly have invented it himself for

his own use, but it's possible that he copied it from Mozart (or another composer) and included

it out of respect for Mozart. We don't know.



The phrase may also have been used frequently by Beethoven in his early years

when he was writing in the style of Mozart. 



An example of the phrase from a Chopin Piano Concerto is also provided, although

Chopin appeared to be using that phrase as a rather weak bridge to some other musical idea.


Mozart's Composition Pupils: 

The phrase can be found in the music of Mozart's composition pupils.


Thus, predecessors, contemporaries, and followers of Mozart also used the phrase, but no one

used it as often as Mozart, and no one invented as many ways to use it as Mozart.

Mozart himself might have copied the phrase from another composer, but he fashioned it

in so many ways and used it so often that it has become his "Trademark Phrase", in my opinion.



General Characterization


The phrase consists of 2 chords. Each chord contains 3 notes.

In musical notation it is:      


 (Actually, Eb-G-Db for the first chord,

  but they are the same notes as above.

  The computer software generated D#

  instead of Eb for the bottom note.)



The 2 lower notes in each chord are major 3rds, highlighted in purple, below.

The top and bottom notes in the 2nd chord are always an octave apart.


The 2-chord phrase always looks like this (pictorially), regardless of the actual notes used.

Click on the speakers to hear the notes.



         Eb------G-----Db             1st chord 


      D------F#-----------D        2nd chord



                Both chords: 

     The 2 notes forming the +6 interval resolve outwardly by half steps to an octave.
     Neither one
of the notes forming the +6 interval moves a full step to form an octave.

     The note comprising the major third also moves by a half step.

     Additionally, the leading voice moves by a half step (Db to D in the example above).


The root key in the preceding examples is G minor.

The top note of the 2nd chord (D natural in the examples) forms the dominant note

of the root key.


Thus, we usually see the progression: 

 G--Bb--D--G  ==>  Eb--G--Db  ==>  D--F#--D  ==>  G--Bb--D--G
       Minor          (Minor)          Major          Minor  

    i of G minor       It#6         V of G minor    i of G minor     

             Typical progression from minor, to major, and back to minor.

                                  The yellow portion represents the trademark phrase. 


The trademark phrase temporarily converts the key from minor to major, and usually

continues to the root key (which is usually minor). Thus, it is usually found where the

piece is in a minor key.




Definition of the Trademark Phrase


The definition of the phrase involves the relationships between the minimum number of notes

which describe the phrase, as well as other factors.


Definition 1 (musical):

1. The phrase being defined is referred to as "Mozart's MTM" (Mozart's Musical

TradeMark) or simply, "the MTM".


2. The MTM phrase consists of 2 chords, with each chord containing 3 notes.


3. The first chord consists of a major 3rd for the lower 2 notes, and an upper note a +6th

higher than the lower note.                                                                      


4. If any additional notes accompany the first chord in the original music, and they are lower

than the lowest note of the first MTM chord, then the lowest accompanying note must be the

same note as the lowest note in the chord, lowered by 1 or more octaves.            


5. The second chord consists of a major 3rd for the lower 2 notes and an upper note an

octave above the lower note.


6. The lowest note in the 2nd chord is 1 semi-tone lower than the lowest note in the first



7. The 2 notes forming the +6 interval in the first chord resolve outwardly by half steps

to an octave in the 2nd chord.                                                                                


8. The note comprising the major third in the first chord (the middle note) moves down

by a half step in the 2nd chord.                                                                            


9. The 2nd chord (the resolution) must appear within 2 measures of the first chord.


10. Key signature is not a factor in the definition.


11. Musical nomenclature involving chord names or types are not part of the definition.


12. For MTM determination, some notes in the original music may need to be eliminated 

to strip away unnecessary notes, based on the rules below. See "Reduction of Notes" below.


13. For MTM determination, some notes in the original music may need to be be interpolated

based on the rule "Interpolation of Notes" below.


14. If the 2 chords match the criteria described above,  then the phrase is a “musical

trademark” phrase, or "MTM", whether by Mozart or another composer.



      Note: Rather than using the formal definition when searching for the phrase, it may be

 easier to use  the earlier examples for comparison, and mentally convert the notes on the

 sheet music to their equivalent locations in the examples, or to quickly check the chord

 relationships using the examples  as references.



Additional Attributes and Rules:


Chord names (Italian 6th, etc) are used only for convenience - not as definitions.

For the purposes of this paper, I am declaring the first chord of the phrase to be an "Italian 6th"-

not a "dominant 7th" - even though the notes in the two types of chords may be identical.


The standard chord names are used as a shorthand  in describing the notes, but the definition

of the phrase, above, is what determines a phrase's qualification to be called a "trademark





                 MTM Determination (4 Steps)


1.  MTM Determination:  Reduction of Notes Via Compression  (First Step)

Compression is simply a preliminary note-removal process, stripping away some of the

non-essential notes to illuminate the trademark phrase.


Where the notes in the 1st or 2nd chords are separated by more than 1 octave from each

other, pitches may be raised or lowered by octave intervals (compressed) as long as their

relative positions in terms of "higher" or "lower" remain the same. This applies to all notes

in both chords. Additionally, intervening notes, if any, are deleted.


Example of compression:


                    1st Chord                   2nd Chord

  As Written:  Eb-Eb---G-Bb-C#-Bb-C#   ===>  D-D----F#-A--D-F#-D

  Compressed:     Eb---G----C#-Bb      ===>    D----F#----D-F#




2.  MTM Determination:  Further Removal of Irrelevant Notes  (Second Step)

The notes may need to be reduced further (after compression has been done) to reveal the

trademark phrase.

Example of compression and further removal of irrelevant notes :


  As Written:     Eb-Eb---G-Bb-C#-Bb-C#  ===> D-D----F#-A--D-F#-D

  Compressed:        Eb---G----C#-Bb     ===>   D----F#----D-F#

  Further Removal:   Eb---G----C#        ===>   D----F#----D

  Musical TM:        Eb---G----C#        ===>   D----F#----D



3.  MTM Determination:  Interpolation of Notes  (Third Step)

The phrase often appears in a modified form, configured with its middle note in the upper

position (such as the G below).

When that occurs, the higher note must be moved between the other 2 notes (interpolated)
     to form the middle note for the required major 3rd(s).


When interpolation is done, it must be done to BOTH chords.



     First Chord

     As Written:        Eb--------------Db-----G


    Same Chord with                                               

    Interpolation:     Eb-----[G]------Db


The interpolated middle note is in brackets. It can come from any note that is part of

that beat or phrase. (Normally it is present as part of that beat).


Interpolation applies only to the finalized middle notes of the phrase as defined earlier.

The lowest and highest notes of the finalized trademark chords do not qualify for



For example in the chord Db-Eb-G, the Db could not be moved above the G to form the

finalized chord Eb-G-Db since it is an upper or lower note of the trademark phrase - not

a middle note. Only the G would qualify for interpolation since it is capable of forming the

middle note of the trademark phrase. 


        modified individual notes         modified phrase    

  Click to hear modified form of phrase before interpolation of notes




4.  MTM Determination:  Delayed Resolution  (Fourth Step)

In some cases, the 2nd chord (the resolution) is delayed by one or more  intervening beats.

As far as is known, this deferment does not exceed 2 measures. Therefore, in searching for

this phrase, one cannot always assume that the next chord following a matching first chord

is the one to evaluate.


Example A6, which cites a trademark phrase in K.594, beginning at  measure 5, beat 1,

features a delayed resolution of the 2nd chord in the phrase. The resolution is delayed

until the next measure, and the phrase is considered to be a trademark phrase despite the

delayed resolution.





Alternate Definitions

There are no alternate definitions of "Mozart's Musical Trademark".



Definition-2 (numeric)

The numeric definition is the same as the musical definition, but uses numbers instead of

note/chord descriptions.  Available on request. The note/chord definition presented on this

web page is easier to follow than the numeric definition.





Types of Phrases

There are 2 types of trademark phrases:


    Type-1: The standard trademark phrase.  The chords meet the musical definition..


    Type-2:  Variations on Type-1.

          These incorporate the same, basic musical idea, but have been modified in some way.


          For example, the phrase might include the first trademark chord, but proceed to

          a minor chord rather than a major chord (Don Giovanni, overture, mm 10-11;

          Rondo ala Turca, mm 20-21).

          It may include the first trademark chord, proceed to a minor chord, and then to a

          resolving major chord, with the minor chord lodged in the middle of the trademark

          phrase (Requiem, Lacrimosa, homo reus, m 8).

          It may proceed in the direction of an augmented 6th, modify a single note so the

          augmented 6th never materializes, then conclude with a minor chord (Magic Flute,

          Queen of the Night aria, last 3 measures. The Queen didn't receive an MTM in that

          aria. The music was one note off. But it was close. Therefore, it's a Variation.)

          There are doubtless many other examples of variations on the trademark phrase.


Several examples of both Type-1 and Type-2 trademark phrases are illustrated in this paper.


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